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Novel Bio-based Branched Unsaturated Polyester Resins for High-Temperature Applications
Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-9305-7430
MagSol, Tuhkanummenkuja 2, 00970, Helsinki, Finland.
Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-6596-8069
Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2325-7928
Vise andre og tillknytning
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Unsaturated polyester resins, one of the most important thermosets, are invariably produced from oil-based monomers. Their application is limited in areas where high thermal stability is required due to their low Tg. Besides, these resins contain 30–40% hazardous styrene as a reactive solvent. Therefore, developing bio-based solventless unsaturated polyester resin with medium to high thermomechanical properties compared to petrochemical-based counterparts is important. In order to achieve this, a series of branched bio-based unsaturated polyester resins were synthesized using bulk polymerization method in two steps. In the first step, four different intermediates were prepared by reacting glycerol (as a core molecule) with either isosorbide (diol), 1,3-propanediol (diol), 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (saturated diacid), or adipic acid (saturated diacid). In the second step, the branched intermediate was end capped with methacrylic anhydride to introduce reactive sites for cross-linking on the branch ends. The chemical structure of the resins was characterized by 13C-NMR. FT-IR confirmed the polycondensation reaction in the first step and the end functionalization of the resins with methacrylic anhydride in the second step. The effect of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and isosorbide on thermomechanical and thermal properties was investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results indicated that 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid based resins had superior thermomechanical properties compared to a commercial reference unsaturated polyester resin, making them promising resins for high-temperature composite applications. For example, the resin based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and isosorbide and the resin based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and 1,3-propanediol gave glass transition temperatures of 173 °C and 148 °C, respectively. Although the synthesized 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid based resins had higher viscosity (22.7 Pas) than conventional unsaturated polyester (0.4–0.5 Pas) at room temperature, preheated resins can be used for making high-temperature-tolerance fiber-reinforced composite. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2023.
Emneord [en]
Bio-based unsaturated polyester resins, Isosorbide, 2, 5-Furandicarboxylic acid, High-Tg
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30990DOI: 10.1007/s10924-023-03112-5ISI: 001103740600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85176301334OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-30990DiVA, id: diva2:1818878
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-12-12 Laget: 2023-12-12 Sist oppdatert: 2024-02-01bibliografisk kontrollert

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Skrifvars, MikaelKumar Ramamoorthy, SunilÅkesson, Dan

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