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Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae for Food: From Submerged Cultivation to Fungal Burgers and Their Sensory Evaluation – A Pilot Study
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6853-9147
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8280-5042
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4709-5126
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7387-2358
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2021 (English)In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 2774Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sustainable development
According to the author(s), the content of this publication falls within the area of sustainable development.
Abstract [en]

New food sources are explored to provide food security in sustainable ways. The submerged fermentation of edible filamentous fungi is a promising strategy to provide nutritious and affordable food that is expected to have a low environmental impact. The aim of the current study was to assess the novel use of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated in submerged fermentation on oat flour as a source for food products that do not undergo secondary fermentation or significant downstream processing. The fungus was cultivated in a pilot-scale airlift bioreactor, and the biomass concentration and protein content of the biomass were assessed. A tasting with an untrained panel assessed consumer preferences regarding the taste and texture of minimally processed vegetarian and vegan burger patties made from the biomass, and how the patties fared against established meat-alternative-based patties. The cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae resulted in a yield of 6 g/L dry biomass with a protein content of 37% on a dry weight basis. The taste and texture of the minimally processed fungal burger patties were to the liking of some participants. This was also reflected in diverse feedback provided by the participants. The cultivation of the fungus on oat flour and its utilization in developing burger patties shows its promising potential for the production of nutritious food. The applications of the fungus can be further developed by exploring other favorable ways to texture and season this relatively new functional food source to the preferences of consumers. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2021. Vol. 10, no 11, article id 2774
Keywords [en]
Plant Science, Health Professions (miscellaneous), Health(social science), Microbiology, Food Science
National Category
Engineering and Technology Natural Sciences Social Sciences
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26900DOI: 10.3390/foods10112774ISI: 000806924000001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85119110546OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-26900DiVA, id: diva2:1611114
Available from: 2021-11-12 Created: 2021-11-12 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Harnessing the potential of filamentous fungi for sustainable and healthy food system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Harnessing the potential of filamentous fungi for sustainable and healthy food system
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Food systems have the potential to improve human health while contributing to environmental sustainability; however, they are currently endangering both. The current food system, which is often based on animal farming, is responsible for global greenhouse gas emissions, and increases the incidence of, and mortality from, non-communicable diseases. Providing the growing global population with healthy food from sustainable systems is an urgent requirement. Microbial fermentation is expected to play a significant role in the transition to sustainable and healthy food systems. Microorganisms, such as edible filamentous fungi, can be a part of the solution. The versatility of filamentous fungi enables them to grow on a variety of substrates in submerged or solid-state fermentation, which minimizes substrate limitations, as well as exhaustive land and water requirements in the cultivation process. In this thesis, the potential of filamentous fungi in the production of sustainable and healthy food, and optimization of fungal biomass production through submerged fermentation on synthetic glucose- and oat-based media, were studied. Additionally, scale-up, sensory characteristics, and nutritional profiles were assessed.

In order to evaluate the production of sustainable and healthy food from filamentous fungi, Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus that is commonly used in food production, was cultivated on oat flour in a pilot-scale airlift bioreactor. The nutrient-rich fungal biomass obtained by increasing the protein content was characterized by an improved ratio of essential amino and fatty acids, and an increase in dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Fungal biomass was converted to Burger patties with minimal downstream processing, which were then subjected to sensory evaluation using an untrained panel. Inspired by the ability of filamentous fungi to produce different bioactive compounds, four strains of edible filamentous fungi commercially used in food production, namely, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia, and Rhizopus oligosporus, were cultivated in a semi-synthetic medium using submerged fermentation to screen for the synthesis of the bioactive compound L-carnitine. The formation of L-carnitine can be enhanced by modulating various factors, such as the fungal strain, cultivation time, and the presence of yeast extract. Aspergillus oryzae was found to have a much greater potential for L-carnitine production than Rhizopus sp and Neurospora intermedia.

In terms of moving towards a sustainable and healthy food supply system, this thesis might contribute not only industrially but also in terms of policy development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2023
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 143
Keywords
sustainable food system, mycoprotein, bioactive compounds, L-carnitine, submerged fermentation, healthy food, edible filamentous fungi
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30011 (URN)978-91-89833-18-0 (ISBN)978-91-89833-19-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-09-11, C203, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-06-30 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved

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Rousta, NedaHellwig, CoralieWainaina, StevenLukitawesa, LukitawesaAgnihotri, SwarnimaRousta, KamranTaherzadeh, Mohammad J

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Rousta, NedaHellwig, CoralieWainaina, StevenLukitawesa, LukitawesaAgnihotri, SwarnimaRousta, KamranTaherzadeh, Mohammad J
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