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The use of life cycle assessment in the support of the development of fungal food products from surplus bread
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0743-1335
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0923-1097
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4887-2433
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)
2021 (English)In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sustainable development
According to the author(s), the content of this publication falls within the area of sustainable development.
Abstract [en]

The use of food waste as feedstock in the manufacture of high-value products is a promising avenue to contribute to circular economy. Considering that the majority of environmental impacts of products are determined in the early phases of product development, it is crucial to integrate life cycle assessment during these phases. This study integrates environmental considerations in the development of solid-state fermentation based on the cultivation of N. intermedia for the production of a fungal food product using surplus bread as a substrate. The product can be sold as a ready-to-eat meal to reduce waste while generating additional income. Four inoculation scenarios were proposed, based on the use of bread, molasses, and glucose as substrate, and one scenario based on backslopping. The environmental performance was assessed, and the quality of the fungal product was evaluated in terms of morphology and protein content. The protein content of the fungal food product was similar in all scenarios, varying from 25% to 29%. The scenario based on backslopping showed the lowest environmental impacts while maintaining high protein content. The results show that the inoculum production and the solid-state fermentation are the two environmental hotspots and should be in focus when optimizing the process. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI , 2021. Vol. 7, no 3, article id 173
Keywords [en]
Bread, Life cycle assessment, Neurospora intermedia, Process development
National Category
Food Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26473DOI: 10.3390/fermentation7030173ISI: 000699659800001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85114675599OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-26473DiVA, id: diva2:1595746
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional GrowthAvailable from: 2021-09-20 Created: 2021-09-20 Last updated: 2021-11-10
In thesis
1. Prevention and valorisation of surplus bread at the supplier-retailer interface
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevention and valorisation of surplus bread at the supplier-retailer interface
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The global food system is a major driver of many environmental impacts, particularly those related to climate change, biodiversity loss, and depletion of freshwater resources. These problems are aggravated by a substantial waste of food throughout the supply chain, where retailers are responsible for large quantities of waste. Although other parts of the supply chain account for relatively higher waste generation, retailers are particularly important because of their influence both downstream and upstream in the supply chain. 

This thesis aims to design and evaluate strategies for food waste prevention and valorisation, particularly for bread products, by analysing food waste quantities, identifying the causes and risk factors, and proposing and evaluating measures for preventing and valorising food waste.

This aim was achieved through a variety of approaches. First, food waste was quantified for one year in a typical mid-sized urban supermarket in Sweden. This information was used to identify hotspots at the product-level in relation to mass, environmental impacts, and cost. Bread was identified as a hotspot and also as a product with a high potential for waste prevention and valorisation measures. A second quantification was performed with the goal of estimating the quantity of surplus bread throughout the Swedish supply chain and to identify the risk factors for waste generation, particularly at the supplier–retailer interface. Finally, this thesis investigated current and future circular economy strategies for the prevention, valorisation, and management of bread surplus by evaluating the environmental performance of multiple strategies and comparing them with current waste management practices. 

The results from the first quantification indicated that bread was a category with significant contribution in all environmental impact categories analysed, with the greatest contribution in terms of the total mass of waste and the economic costs incurred by the supermarket. The second quantification estimated 80 500 tonnes of bread waste/year in Sweden, equivalent to 8 kg per person/year, which was mainly concentrated at household and retail levels, specifically at the supplier–retailer interface. The results provided evidence that the take-back agreement between suppliers and retailers is a risk factor for high waste generation. Therefore, current business models may need to be changed to achieve a more sustainable bread supply chain with lower waste generation. However, the currently established return system between bakeries and retailers enables a segregated flow of bread waste that is not contaminated with other food waste products. This provides an opportunity for alternative valorisation and waste management options that are not viable for mixed waste streams.

The results from the environmental assessment for the prevention, valorisation and waste management pathways supported a waste hierarchy, where prevention has the highest environmental savings, followed by donation, the use of surplus bread as animal feed, and for beer and ethanol production. Anaerobic digestion and incineration offer the lowest environmental savings, particularly in low impact energy systems. The results suggest that Sweden can make use of the established return system to implement environmentally preferred options for the management of surplus bread.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2021
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 124
Keywords
Food waste; Life cycle assessment; Bread; Prevention; Valorisation
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26454 (URN)978-91-89271-42-5 (ISBN)978-91-89271-43-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-12-03, C203, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2021-11-12 Created: 2021-09-17 Last updated: 2021-11-10Bibliographically approved

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Brancoli, PedroGmoser, RebeccaTaherzadeh, Mohammad JBolton, Kim

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