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Fungal textiles: Wet spinning of fungal microfibers to produce monofilament yarns
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
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2021 (English)In: Sustainable Materials and Technologies, ISSN 2214-9937, Vol. 28, article id e00256Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sustainable development
According to the author(s), the content of this publication falls within the area of sustainable development.
Abstract [en]

The cell wall of a zygomycetes fungus was successfully wet spun into monofilament yarns and demonstrated as a novel resource for production of sustainable textiles. Furthermore, the fungus could be cultivated on bread waste, an abundant food waste with large negative environmental impact if not further utilized. Rhizopus delemar was first cultivated in bread waste in a bubble column bioreactor. The fungal cell wall collected through alkali treatment of fungal biomass contained 36 and 23% glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine representing chitosan and chitin in the cell wall, respectively. The amino groups of chitosan were protonated by utilizing acetic or lactic acid. This resulted in the formation of a uniform hydrogel of fungal microfibers. The obtained hydrogel was wet spun into an ethanol coagulation bath to form an aggregated monofilament, which was finally dried. SEM images confirmed the alignment of fungal microfibers along the monofilament axis. The wet spun monofilaments had tensile strengths up to 69.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 4.97 GPa. This work demonstrates an environmentally benign procedure to fabricate renewable fibers from fungal cell wall cultivated on abundant food waste, which opens a window to creation of sustainable fungal textiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2021. Vol. 28, article id e00256
Keywords [en]
Chitin, Chitosan, Filamentous fungi, Zygomycetes, Wet spinning, Monofilaments
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-25100DOI: 10.1016/j.susmat.2021.e00256ISI: 000663234300010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85100376426OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-25100DiVA, id: diva2:1532231
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-04093Available from: 2021-03-01 Created: 2021-03-01 Last updated: 2024-05-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Development of Filaments Using Cell Wall Material of Filamentous Fungi Grown on Bread Waste for Application in Medical Textiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Filaments Using Cell Wall Material of Filamentous Fungi Grown on Bread Waste for Application in Medical Textiles
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a need for new sustainable textiles to reduce the problems related to the productionof current textiles, including the use of nonrenewable resources, shortages of cotton, and theuse of harmful chemicals. Bio-based materials developed from natural biopolymers areattracting increasing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-based materials. Thecultivation of filamentous fungi results in fungal biomass that is rich in biopolymers. In fungalbiorefineries, food waste can be valorized via fungal cultivation, resulting in a broad range ofvalue-added products.

In this study, filaments were designed from the cell wall material of filamentous fungi grownon bread waste and evaluated for application in medical textiles. The developed route forfilament production uses benign processes and reuses food waste. The fungal cell wall, isolatedfrom fungal biomass (mycelia), consists of a matrix of biopolymers, including chitin, chitosan,and glucan. The aim was to directly utilize the cell wall material for developing filamentswithout needing extensive purification of these biopolymers.

Fungal biomass was obtained by cultivating an edible filamentous fungus (Rhizopus delemar)with a cell wall rich in chitosan and chitin. Submerged cultivation using bread waste as asubstrate was demonstrated on multiple scales, from 0.2 L shake flasks to a 1.3 m3 bioreactor.First, a protein hydrolysate was recovered from the fungal biomass via mild enzymatictreatment. The protein hydrolysate exhibited potential as an emulsifier and foaming agent. Thenever-dried cell wall material was isolated using alkali treatment for filament production.Hydrogels formed from the cell wall material after the addition of lactic acid. Hydrogelformation was attributed to the protonation of the amino groups of chitosan present in the cellwall. The hydrogels were wet spun into monofilaments using ethanol as the coagulation agent.The fungal monofilaments are suggested as suitable candidates for applications in medicaltextiles owing to their biocompatibility with human fibroblast cells and their antibacterial andwound-healing properties. This method was also applied to another strain of ediblefilamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae), wherein the cell wall mainly comprises chitin andglucan. The cell wall material obtained from A. oryzae was subjected to deacetylation andfreeze–thaw pre-treatments to achieve gelation, and the formed hydrogels were successfullywet spun into monofilaments.

The work presented in this thesis introduces the potential of the valorization of bread wasteinto value-added products based on a biorefinery concept utilizing different edible fungalstrains. This process focuses on scalability and environmental benignity. This studycontributes to the development of novel biomaterials and fungal proteins obtained from fungalcell walls for application in medical textiles and food products, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2024
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 151
Keywords
Antibacterial, Ascomycetes, biocompatibility, chitin, chitosan, chitin–glucan, deacetylation, filamentous fungi, food waste, fungal textile, hydrogel, medical textile, monofilament, Mucoromycetes, submerged cultivation, wet spinning, wound healing
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology Polymer Chemistry Bioprocess Technology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31733 (URN)978-91-89833-48-7 (ISBN)978-91-89833-49-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-14, C203, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2024-05-21 Created: 2024-04-02 Last updated: 2024-05-23Bibliographically approved

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Svensson, SofieFerreira, JorgeZamani, Akram

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