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Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace
Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-7103-4628
Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7377-0765
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikel-id 289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Hållbar utveckling
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Abstract [en]

Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2019. Vol. 11, nr 2, artikel-id 289
Nyckelord [en]
apple pomace, biofilm, biomaterials, compression molding, fiberboard, solution casting
Nationell ämneskategori
Industriell bioteknik
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning; Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15718DOI: 10.3390/polym11020289Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85061399977OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-15718DiVA, id: diva2:1283192
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-28 Skapad: 2019-01-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

To address the current plastic pollution problem, the replacement of conventional plastics with bioplastics can be considered. Although the land use of crop cultivation for bioplastics is still negligible, there is an increasing interest in the utilisation of lignocellulosic waste products for the production of bioplastics. A latest trend in researching sources for bioplastic production focuses on the use of fruit and vegetable wastes because of their versatile polysaccharides. Among different fruit wastes, orange waste and apple pomace have been evaluated as raw materials in this thesis.

The development of biofilms and 3D objects from the above-mentioned raw materials via the solution casting and compression moulding methods was investigated. Biocomposites are generally made from a bioplastic matrix and reinforcement, or a plastic reinforced with natural fibres. In the present study, pectin was used as a matrix, and cellulosic fibres wereused as reinforcement. Orange waste films had an opaque appearance with a yellowish colour and were very flexible, while the 3D objects had brown colour. The films had mechanical properties comparable with those of commodity plastics, such as 32 to 36 MPa tensile strength. The films were biodegradable under anaerobic conditions, and 3D objects showed good biodegradability in soil. Grafting of orange waste with maleic anhydride was performed in order to improve its properties, e.g. the hydrophilicity of the polysaccharides-based materials. Grafting reduced the density by 40 % and increased the hydrophobicity compared with unmodified orange waste. Further improvements included upgrading the film casting method and incorporating maleic anhydride in the recipe. The lowest amount of necessary maleic anhydride was determined (0.4 %), and the resulting films had a smoother and more uniform surface. The original methods were also applied to apple pomace in order to produce films and 3D objects. Films from apple pomace had an elongation of 55 %, a twofold increase compared to that of orange waste films containing maleic anhydride (28 %). Orange waste and apple pomace were also mixed for 3D object fabrication, achieving the highest strength of 5.8 MPa (ratio of 75 to 25, respectively) a threefold increase compared to that achieved with only orange waste alone (1.8 MPa).

The results are promising‚ but further improvements, e.g. in respect to hydrophilicity and upscaling‚ are needed for orange waste and apple pomace to develop into raw materials for next-generation bioplastics.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2018
Serie
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 93
Nyckelord
apple pomace, biodegradable, bioplastics, circular economy, orange waste, resource recovery
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15463 (URN)978-91-88838-21-6 (ISBN)978-91-88838-22-3 (ISBN)
Disputation
2019-02-22, E310, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00
Opponent
Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-01 Skapad: 2018-12-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-28Bibliografiskt granskad

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Bátori, VeronikaÅkesson, DanTaherzadeh, Mohammad JZamani, Akram

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