Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7103-4628
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7377-0765
Show others and affiliations
2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sustainable development
According to the author(s), the content of this publication falls within the area of sustainable development.
Abstract [en]

Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 11, no 2, article id 289
Keywords [en]
apple pomace, biofilm, biomaterials, compression molding, fiberboard, solution casting
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15718DOI: 10.3390/polym11020289OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-15718DiVA, id: diva2:1283192
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To address the current plastic pollution problem, the replacement of conventional plastics with bioplastics can be considered. Although the land use of crop cultivation for bioplastics is still negligible, there is an increasing interest in the utilisation of lignocellulosic waste products for the production of bioplastics. A latest trend in researching sources for bioplastic production focuses on the use of fruit and vegetable wastes because of their versatile polysaccharides. Among different fruit wastes, orange waste and apple pomace have been evaluated as raw materials in this thesis.

The development of biofilms and 3D objects from the above-mentioned raw materials via the solution casting and compression moulding methods was investigated. Biocomposites are generally made from a bioplastic matrix and reinforcement, or a plastic reinforced with natural fibres. In the present study, pectin was used as a matrix, and cellulosic fibres wereused as reinforcement. Orange waste films had an opaque appearance with a yellowish colour and were very flexible, while the 3D objects had brown colour. The films had mechanical properties comparable with those of commodity plastics, such as 32 to 36 MPa tensile strength. The films were biodegradable under anaerobic conditions, and 3D objects showed good biodegradability in soil. Grafting of orange waste with maleic anhydride was performed in order to improve its properties, e.g. the hydrophilicity of the polysaccharides-based materials. Grafting reduced the density by 40 % and increased the hydrophobicity compared with unmodified orange waste. Further improvements included upgrading the film casting method and incorporating maleic anhydride in the recipe. The lowest amount of necessary maleic anhydride was determined (0.4 %), and the resulting films had a smoother and more uniform surface. The original methods were also applied to apple pomace in order to produce films and 3D objects. Films from apple pomace had an elongation of 55 %, a twofold increase compared to that of orange waste films containing maleic anhydride (28 %). Orange waste and apple pomace were also mixed for 3D object fabrication, achieving the highest strength of 5.8 MPa (ratio of 75 to 25, respectively) a threefold increase compared to that achieved with only orange waste alone (1.8 MPa).

The results are promising‚ but further improvements, e.g. in respect to hydrophilicity and upscaling‚ are needed for orange waste and apple pomace to develop into raw materials for next-generation bioplastics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2018
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 93
Keywords
apple pomace, biodegradable, bioplastics, circular economy, orange waste, resource recovery
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15463 (URN)978-91-88838-21-6 (ISBN)978-91-88838-22-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-22, E310, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00
Opponent
Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2659 kB)41 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 2659 kBChecksum SHA-512
766c88a381a5c433e1f56ea5abc9f75cbbd18b91076e7f85844a414b747cbade98d1e27c84537ba38d0ab7b1f08b1445c4ac97c0a19ea23e55de1c601074d46d
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Bátori, VeronikaÅkesson, DanTaherzadeh, Mohammad JZamani, Akram

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bátori, VeronikaÅkesson, DanTaherzadeh, Mohammad JZamani, Akram
By organisation
Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business
In the same journal
Polymers
Industrial Biotechnology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 41 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 212 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf