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Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7103-4628
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1404-9134
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7377-0765
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, Vol. 2017, p. 1-9, article id 9732329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While citrus waste is abundantly generated, the disposal methods used today remain unsatisfactory: they can be deleterious for ruminants, can cause soil salinity, or are not economically feasible; yet citrus waste consists of various valuable polymers. This paper introduces a novel environmentally safe approach that utilizes citrus waste polymers as a biobased and biodegradable film, for example, for food packaging. Orange waste has been investigated for biofilm production, using the gelling ability of pectin and the strength of cellulosic fibres. A casting method was used to form a film from the previously washed, dried, and milled orange waste. Two film-drying methods, a laboratory oven and an incubator shaker, were compared. FE-SEM images confirmed a smoother film morphology when the incubator shaker was used for drying. The tensile strength of the films was 31.67 ± 4.21 and 34.76 ± 2.64 MPa, respectively, for the oven-dried and incubator-dried films, which is within the range of different commodity plastics. Additionally, biodegradability of the films was confirmed under anaerobic conditions. Films showed an opaque appearance with yellowish colour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 2017, p. 1-9, article id 9732329
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12981DOI: 10.1155/2017/9732329ISI: 000414729600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85042320662OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-12981DiVA, id: diva2:1155880
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To address the current plastic pollution problem, the replacement of conventional plastics with bioplastics can be considered. Although the land use of crop cultivation for bioplastics is still negligible, there is an increasing interest in the utilisation of lignocellulosic waste products for the production of bioplastics. A latest trend in researching sources for bioplastic production focuses on the use of fruit and vegetable wastes because of their versatile polysaccharides. Among different fruit wastes, orange waste and apple pomace have been evaluated as raw materials in this thesis.

The development of biofilms and 3D objects from the above-mentioned raw materials via the solution casting and compression moulding methods was investigated. Biocomposites are generally made from a bioplastic matrix and reinforcement, or a plastic reinforced with natural fibres. In the present study, pectin was used as a matrix, and cellulosic fibres wereused as reinforcement. Orange waste films had an opaque appearance with a yellowish colour and were very flexible, while the 3D objects had brown colour. The films had mechanical properties comparable with those of commodity plastics, such as 32 to 36 MPa tensile strength. The films were biodegradable under anaerobic conditions, and 3D objects showed good biodegradability in soil. Grafting of orange waste with maleic anhydride was performed in order to improve its properties, e.g. the hydrophilicity of the polysaccharides-based materials. Grafting reduced the density by 40 % and increased the hydrophobicity compared with unmodified orange waste. Further improvements included upgrading the film casting method and incorporating maleic anhydride in the recipe. The lowest amount of necessary maleic anhydride was determined (0.4 %), and the resulting films had a smoother and more uniform surface. The original methods were also applied to apple pomace in order to produce films and 3D objects. Films from apple pomace had an elongation of 55 %, a twofold increase compared to that of orange waste films containing maleic anhydride (28 %). Orange waste and apple pomace were also mixed for 3D object fabrication, achieving the highest strength of 5.8 MPa (ratio of 75 to 25, respectively) a threefold increase compared to that achieved with only orange waste alone (1.8 MPa).

The results are promising‚ but further improvements, e.g. in respect to hydrophilicity and upscaling‚ are needed for orange waste and apple pomace to develop into raw materials for next-generation bioplastics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2018
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 93
Keywords
apple pomace, biodegradable, bioplastics, circular economy, orange waste, resource recovery
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15463 (URN)978-91-88838-21-6 (ISBN)978-91-88838-22-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-22, E310, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00
Opponent
Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved

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Bátori, VeronikaJabbari, MostafaÅkesson, DanLennartsson, Patrik R.Taherzadeh, Mohammad JZamani, Akram

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