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Fungi-based biorefinery model for food industry waste: progress toward a circular economy
Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-1711-7294
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Hållbar utveckling
Verkets författare anser att innehållet i publikationen faller inom ämnet hållbar utveckling.
Abstract [en]

The food industry, one of the most important industrial sectors worldwide, generates large amounts of biodegradable waste with high organic load. In recent years, the traditional management methods to treat this waste (e.g., landfilling) have been considered not suitable because they do not exploit the potential of the waste material. Alternatively, valorization of food industry waste via a biorefinery model using filamentous fungi is considered to represent an attractive strategy because it minimizes the negative impacts while recovering the nutrients and energy of the waste, in accordance with the concept of the circular economy.

In this thesis, four food processing wastes were utilized as case studies: potato protein liquor (PPL, the soluble fraction of potato starch production waste), the peels wasted during orange juice production, the starchy byproduct of pea protein processes, and the wastewater of a wheat-starch plant. Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycetous filamentous fungus, was grown with these wastes as a substrate, yielding biomass containing 43% (w/w) protein together with 51% removal of the chemical oxygen demand when cultivated in tenfold-diluted PPL. Moreover, protein-rich biomass was produced using the pea-processing byproduct (55%) and wheat-starch wastewater (51%). In contrast, cultivation in orange peel extract yielded a biomass rich in lipids (20%). The use of PPL was also studied in terms of the economy of fungal cultivation. The biotreatment was found to require only 46% of the capital investment necessary for treating PPL by the traditional strategy (application as fertilizer). In comparison, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus oryzae yielded superior results compared to those of R. oryzae when grown in the starchy residues. The high protein content of the fungal biomass encouraged the investigation of its use for bioplastic production. The addition of 20% fungal biomass in a pectin matrix increased the tensile yield of the film and reduced the elongation at break. Moreover, a positive effect on water vapor permeability of the film was also observed.

These results indicate the ability of the filamentous fungi to convert resources wasted by the food industry into new products with positive impacts on the economy and the environment.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2018.
Serie
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 89
Nyckelord [en]
filamentous fungi, circular economy, biorefinery, food industry, fungal biomass, bioplastic, resource recovery
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan industriell bioteknik
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14888ISBN: 978-91-88838-00-1 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-88838-01-8 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-14888DiVA, id: diva2:1237180
Disputation
2018-09-25, 310, University of Borås, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-30 Skapad: 2018-08-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Production of Edible Fungi from Potato Protein Liquor (PPL) in Airlift Bioreactor
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Production of Edible Fungi from Potato Protein Liquor (PPL) in Airlift Bioreactor
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 12-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Potato protein liquor (PPL), a side stream from the potato starch industry, is normally used as fertilizer. However, with more than 100 g/L of sugars, 20 g/L of Kjeldahl nitrogen and Chemical Oxigen Demand (COD) of 300 g/L, it represents serious environmental challenges. The use of PPL for fungal cultivation is a promising solution to convert this waste into valuable products. In this study, PPL was characterized and used to cultivate edible zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae, which is widely used in Southeast Asian cuisine to prepare e.g., tempeh. Moreover, it can be potentially used as a protein source in animal feed worldwide. Under the best conditions, 65.47 ± 2.91 g of fungal biomass per litre of PPL was obtained in airlift bioreactors. The total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the biomass was above 70 g/kg dry biomass. The best results showed 51% reduction of COD and 98.7% reduction in the total sugar content of PPL.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Basel, Switzerland: , 2017
Nyckelord
airlift bioreactor; filamentous fungal biomass; fungal pellets; potato protein liquor; Rhizopus oryzae
Nationell ämneskategori
Vattenbehandling
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14903 (URN)10.3390/fermentation3010012 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-08 Skapad: 2018-08-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-30Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Techno-Economic and Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management from Potato Starch Production: Present Status and Alternative Biotreatments
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Techno-Economic and Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management from Potato Starch Production: Present Status and Alternative Biotreatments
Visa övriga...
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fermentation, Vol. 3, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-13421 (URN)10.3390/fermentation3040056 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-01-12 Skapad: 2018-01-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-30Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Edible Protein Production by Filamentous Fungi using Starch Plant Wastewater
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Edible Protein Production by Filamentous Fungi using Starch Plant Wastewater
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The process to obtain starch from wheat requires high amounts of water, consequently generating large amounts of wastewater with very high environmental loading. This wastewater is traditionally sent to treatment facilities. This paper introduces an alternative method, where the wastewater of a wheat-starch plant is treated by edible filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae) to obtain a protein-rich biomass to be used as e.g. animal feed. The wastewater was taken from the clarified liquid of the first and second decanter (ED1 and ED2, respectively) and from the solid-rich stream (SS), whose carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations ranged between 15 and 90 and 1.25–1.40 g/L, respectively. A. oryzae showed better performance than R. oryzae, removing more than 80% of COD after 3 days for ED1 and ED2 streams. Additionally, 12 g/L of dry biomass with protein content close to 35% (w/w) was collected, demonstrating the potential of filamentous fungi to be used in wastewater valorization. High content of fermentable solids in the SS sample led to high production of ethanol (10.91 g/L), which can be recovered and contribute to the economics of the process.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer Netherlands, 2018
Nyckelord
Bioethanol, Filamentous fungi, Fungal biomass, Wastewater treatment
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan industriell bioteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14846 (URN)10.1007/s12649-018-0265-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042924369 (Scopus ID)18772641 (ISSN) (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-01 Skapad: 2018-08-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-30
4. Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi
Visa övriga...
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology, ISSN 2054-3085, Vol. 5, nr 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota (Aspergillus oryzaeFusarium venenatumMonascus purpureusNeurospora intermedia) and Zygomycota (Rhizopus oryzae) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield.

Results

A. oryzae had the best performance among the tested fungi, with a protein yield of 0.26 g per g of pea-processing byproduct from the bench scale airlift bioreactor cultivation. It is estimated that by integrating the novel fungal process at an existing pea-processing industry, about 680 kg of fungal biomass attributing to about 38% of extra protein could be produced for each 1 metric ton of pea-processing byproduct. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the potential of the pea-processing byproduct to be used by filamentous fungi to produce vegan-mycoprotein for human food applications.

Conclusion

The pea-processing byproduct (PpB) was proved to be an efficient medium for the growth of filamentous fungi to produce a vegan-protein concentrate. Moreover, an industrial scenario for the production of vegan-mycoprotein concentrate for human nutrition is proposed as an integrated process to the existing PPI production facilities.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
London, UK: BioMed Central, 2018
Nyckelord
Pea-processing byproduct, Edible filamentous fungi, Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate, Meat substitute
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan industriell bioteknik
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14904 (URN)10.1186/s40694-018-0050-9 (DOI)29619233 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-08 Skapad: 2018-08-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-07Bibliografiskt granskad
5. A solvent-free approach for production of films from pectin and fungal biomass
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A solvent-free approach for production of films from pectin and fungal biomass
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1064-7546, E-ISSN 1572-8900, Vol. 26, nr 11, s. 4282-4292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-binding ability of the pectin molecules was used to produce pectin films using the compression molding technique, as an alternative method to the high energy-demanding and solvent-using casting technique. Moreover, incorporation of fungal biomass and its effects on the properties of the films was studied. Pectin powder plasticized with 30% glycerol was subjected to heat compression molding (120 °C, 1.33 MPa, 10 min) yielding pectin films with tensile strength and elongation at break of 15.7 MPa and 5.5%, respectively. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was cultivated using the water-soluble nutrients obtained from citrus waste and yielded a biomass containing 31% proteins and 20% lipids. Comparatively, the same strain was cultivated in a semi-synthetic medium resulting in a biomass with higher protein (60%) and lower lipid content (10%). SEM images showed addition of biomass yielded films with less debris compared to the pectin films. Incorporation of the low protein content biomass up to 15% did not significantly reduce the mechanical strength of the pectin films. In contrast, addition of protein-rich biomass (up to 20%) enhanced the tensile strength of the films (16.1–19.3 MPa). Lastly, the fungal biomass reduced the water vapor permeability of the pectin films.

Nyckelord
Citrus waste, Pectin, Compression molding, Rhizopus oryzae, Bioplastics
Nationell ämneskategori
Industriell bioteknik
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15055 (URN)10.1007/s10924-018-1300-x (DOI)000446743000011 ()2-s2.0-85052708199 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-30 Skapad: 2018-08-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-30Bibliografiskt granskad

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