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Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system
Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-7103-4628
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Hållbar utveckling
Verkets författare anser att innehållet i publikationen faller inom ämnet hållbar utveckling.
Abstract [en]

To address the current plastic pollution problem, the replacement of conventional plastics with bioplastics can be considered. Although the land use of crop cultivation for bioplastics is still negligible, there is an increasing interest in the utilisation of lignocellulosic waste products for the production of bioplastics. A latest trend in researching sources for bioplastic production focuses on the use of fruit and vegetable wastes because of their versatile polysaccharides. Among different fruit wastes, orange waste and apple pomace have been evaluated as raw materials in this thesis.

The development of biofilms and 3D objects from the above-mentioned raw materials via the solution casting and compression moulding methods was investigated. Biocomposites are generally made from a bioplastic matrix and reinforcement, or a plastic reinforced with natural fibres. In the present study, pectin was used as a matrix, and cellulosic fibres wereused as reinforcement. Orange waste films had an opaque appearance with a yellowish colour and were very flexible, while the 3D objects had brown colour. The films had mechanical properties comparable with those of commodity plastics, such as 32 to 36 MPa tensile strength. The films were biodegradable under anaerobic conditions, and 3D objects showed good biodegradability in soil. Grafting of orange waste with maleic anhydride was performed in order to improve its properties, e.g. the hydrophilicity of the polysaccharides-based materials. Grafting reduced the density by 40 % and increased the hydrophobicity compared with unmodified orange waste. Further improvements included upgrading the film casting method and incorporating maleic anhydride in the recipe. The lowest amount of necessary maleic anhydride was determined (0.4 %), and the resulting films had a smoother and more uniform surface. The original methods were also applied to apple pomace in order to produce films and 3D objects. Films from apple pomace had an elongation of 55 %, a twofold increase compared to that of orange waste films containing maleic anhydride (28 %). Orange waste and apple pomace were also mixed for 3D object fabrication, achieving the highest strength of 5.8 MPa (ratio of 75 to 25, respectively) a threefold increase compared to that achieved with only orange waste alone (1.8 MPa).

The results are promising‚ but further improvements, e.g. in respect to hydrophilicity and upscaling‚ are needed for orange waste and apple pomace to develop into raw materials for next-generation bioplastics.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2018.
Serie
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 93
Nyckelord [en]
apple pomace, biodegradable, bioplastics, circular economy, orange waste, resource recovery
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15463ISBN: 978-91-88838-21-6 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-88838-22-3 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-15463DiVA, id: diva2:1270941
Disputation
2019-02-22, E310, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00
Opponent
Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-01 Skapad: 2018-12-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, Vol. 2017, s. 1-9, artikel-id 9732329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

While citrus waste is abundantly generated, the disposal methods used today remain unsatisfactory: they can be deleterious for ruminants, can cause soil salinity, or are not economically feasible; yet citrus waste consists of various valuable polymers. This paper introduces a novel environmentally safe approach that utilizes citrus waste polymers as a biobased and biodegradable film, for example, for food packaging. Orange waste has been investigated for biofilm production, using the gelling ability of pectin and the strength of cellulosic fibres. A casting method was used to form a film from the previously washed, dried, and milled orange waste. Two film-drying methods, a laboratory oven and an incubator shaker, were compared. FE-SEM images confirmed a smoother film morphology when the incubator shaker was used for drying. The tensile strength of the films was 31.67 ± 4.21 and 34.76 ± 2.64 MPa, respectively, for the oven-dried and incubator-dried films, which is within the range of different commodity plastics. Additionally, biodegradability of the films was confirmed under anaerobic conditions. Films showed an opaque appearance with yellowish colour.

Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12981 (URN)10.1155/2017/9732329 (DOI)000414729600001 ()2-s2.0-85042320662 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-11-09 Skapad: 2017-11-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-07Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Synthesis and characterization of maleic anhydride-grafted orange waste for potential use in biocomposites
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Synthesis and characterization of maleic anhydride-grafted orange waste for potential use in biocomposites
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 4986-4997Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Nyckelord
bioplymers, esterification, grafting, maleic anhydride, orange waste, pectin
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14204 (URN)10.15376/biores.13.3.4986-4997 (DOI)000440506300018 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-21 Skapad: 2018-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-25Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Anaerobic degradation of bioplastics: A review
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Anaerobic degradation of bioplastics: A review
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Waste Management, Vol. 80, s. 406-413Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), leading to renewableenergy production in the form of methane, is a preferable method for dealing with the increasing amountof waste. Food waste is separated at the source in many countries for anaerobic digestion. However, thepresence of plastic bags is a major challenge for such processes. This study investigated the anaerobicdegradability of different bioplastics, aiming at potential use as collecting bags for the OFMSW. Thechemical composition of the bioplastics and the microbial community structure in the AD processaffected the biodegradation of the bioplastics. Some biopolymers can be degraded at hydraulic retentiontimes usually applied at the biogas plants, such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s, starch, cellulose and pectin,so no possible contamination would occur. In the future, updated standardization of collecting bags forthe OFMSW will be required to meet the requirements of effective operation of a biogas plant.

Nyckelord
Anaerobic digestion, Biodegradation, Bioplastics, Food waste, Methane, Plastic bags
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljöbioteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15152 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2018.09.040 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054156950 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-04 Skapad: 2018-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-25Bibliografiskt granskad
4. The effect of glycerol, sugar and maleic anhydride on pectin-cellulose biofilms prepared from orange waste
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The effect of glycerol, sugar and maleic anhydride on pectin-cellulose biofilms prepared from orange waste
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(Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
Nyckelord
biofilm, glycerol, maleic anhydride, orange waste, sugar
Nationell ämneskategori
Industriell bioteknik
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning; Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15716 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-28 Skapad: 2019-01-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-04
5. Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikel-id 289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. 

Nyckelord
apple pomace, biofilm, biomaterials, compression molding, fiberboard, solution casting
Nationell ämneskategori
Industriell bioteknik
Forskningsämne
Resursåtervinning; Resursåtervinning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15718 (URN)10.3390/polym11020289 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061399977 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-28 Skapad: 2019-01-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-07Bibliografiskt granskad

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