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Engagement with Fungi-Based Food: Recovery and Valorization of Resources for Food
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8280-5042
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There has been an increasing demand for more sustainable food and ways of encouraging individuals to lead more sustainable lives. This thesis seeks to contribute to understanding human engagement with fungi-based food in a multidisciplinary manner by complementing resource recovery with an occupational perspective that sheds light on aspects that encourage or discourage individuals from engaging with this food. This thesis encompasses five papers. The research described in these papers focused on reviewing aspects that affect tasting studies of emerging food; studying how a valorized bread-based fungi burger patty was perceived; investigating aspects that affect food choice in daily life as well as drivers and barriers to engagement with fungi-based food; exploring glocal and ecoethical perceptions of engagement with fungi-based food; and assessing household fermentation of leftover bread to nutritious food. Personal reflections about the consequences of engaging in activities and with resources and products can be expected to constitute an essential part of ecoethics and elicit reasons and motives that encourage engagement. Acting in ways that are based on reasons and motives to engage with fungi-based food is expected to require that the engagement is consistent with an individual's ideals and the belief that one's actions can contribute to achieving goals. The findings show that several motives may affect engagement with fungi-based food, including sustainability, environmental benefits, resource use, personal choices, individual interests, finances, sensory characteristics, social implications, and health. That resources can be valorized when producing fungi-based food as well as that this can contribute to overcoming challenges related to providing nutritious, affordable, and sustainable food to the growing global population, encourage engagement with this food. These findings are promising given the resource depletion of the status quo of food production, the amount of food lost and wasted, and the negative consequences associated with this loss and waste. They can be built on in research and policy efforts that aim to encourage individuals to engage with foods that efficiently use natural resources, lessen the impact of food systems on the planet, and ensure food security and nutrition. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2023.
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 139
Keywords [en]
sustainable lifestyles, fungi, resource recovery, sustainable food, food waste reduction
National Category
Food Engineering
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29598ISBN: 978-91-89271-98-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-89271-99-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-29598DiVA, id: diva2:1748424
Public defence
2023-06-16, C203, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-04-18 Created: 2023-04-03 Last updated: 2023-04-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Aspects that Affect Tasting Studies of Emerging Food: A Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects that Affect Tasting Studies of Emerging Food: A Review
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2022 (English)In: Future Foods, ISSN 2666-8335, Vol. 5, article id 100109Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Providing food security to the growing global population, and the resource depletion associated with current food systems, let to calls for more sustainable food sources. Food that can be produced in a sustainable way (taking all three aspects of sustainable development into consideration) is currently emerging in Western societies. Through tastings, insight can be gathered not only into sensory characteristics but also other aspects that aid innovation and development of food. The current study identified aspects that can affect tastings of emerging food by reviewing relevant literature. General aspects; meat alternatives; ingredients or processing technologies; information, prior knowledge and (un)familiarity; taste and liking; emotional factors; and willingness to engage with emerging food can affect tastings of emerging food. Awareness of the effect that these aspects can have on methodological considerations and results can be constructive in future research that use tastings as a platform to develop new and emerging food. The findings are significant for food science in terms of cornerstones towards potential industrial applications. These include innovating new types of food, assessing most effective technologies in the context of such food, developing new products, and understanding engagement with emerging food products.

Keywords
Alternative food, Sustainable development, Food acceptance, Algae, Entomology, Filamentous fungi
National Category
Social Sciences Agricultural and Veterinary sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27110 (URN)10.1016/j.fufo.2021.100109 (DOI)001097481400006 ()2-s2.0-85121980951 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), 20201656
Available from: 2021-12-28 Created: 2021-12-28 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
2. Fungi Burger from Stale Bread? A Case Study on Perceptions of a Novel Protein-Rich Food Product Made from an Edible Fungus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fungi Burger from Stale Bread? A Case Study on Perceptions of a Novel Protein-Rich Food Product Made from an Edible Fungus
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2020 (English)In: Foods, ISSN ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 1112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study aims to assess how a novel fungi product made from the filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, cultivated on bread residuals, is perceived using questionnaires. Participants were asked to rate characteristic attributes of a fungi burger patty and state their preference when comparing it to Quorn and hamburger patties. The data were analyzed to assess whether gender or age was statistically associated with preference profiles. Neither age nor gender was associated with the preference profiles regarding the comparison of burger patties. Except for age and bitterness, age and gender were also not associated with the preference profiles regarding the sensory characteristics of the fungi burger patty. Most of the participants liked the characteristics of the fungi burger patty. The results indicate that fungi products from waste can become accepted products when information dissemination targets environmental benefits. Moreover, to be commercially accepted, the chewiness and bitterness of the product should be improved. Other improvements should target the overall taste in order to cater to people who prefer meat-based protein sources.

Keywords
food perceptions; food preferences; novel food; edible filamentous fungi; sustainable food production; resource recovery
National Category
Engineering and Technology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Food Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-23707 (URN)10.3390/foods9081112 (DOI)000564731600001 ()2-s2.0-85092280470 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-19 Created: 2020-08-19 Last updated: 2023-04-18Bibliographically approved
3. Aspects Affecting Food Choice in Daily Life as Well as Drivers and Barriers to Engagement with Fungi-Based Food: A Qualitative Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects Affecting Food Choice in Daily Life as Well as Drivers and Barriers to Engagement with Fungi-Based Food: A Qualitative Perspective
2023 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fungi-based food is expected to contribute to more sustainable food systems. The present study has three focus areas: (i) aspects that affect food choices food in daily life, (ii) aspects that affect choices of fungi-based food in particular, and (iii) drivers that motivate, and barriers that prevent, engagement in cultivating fungi and cooking fungi-based food at home. One hundred and sixty participants, who were recruited using convenience sampling, filled out qualitative questionnaires. The results show that there are numerous aspects (e.g., environmental benefits, nutrition, sensory characteristics, production practices and ingredients) that are important when people choose food in daily life. In addition to curiosity, many of these aspects also affect the choice of fungi-based food. The study identified more drivers (e.g., self-providing, curiosity, awareness of ingredients) than barriers (time, knowledge, concerns about contamination) to cultivation and cooking of fungi-based food at home. The findings are relevant for the development of fungi-based food so that this type of food is engaged with, and so that it can contribute to more sustainable food systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
future food, sustainability, sustainable lifestyles, filamentous fungi, fungi-based food, resource recovery
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29178 (URN)10.3390/su15010317 (DOI)000909806000001 ()2-s2.0-85145994190 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 20201656
Note

Funder: European Cooperation in Science and Technology through the Cross-Border Transfer and Development of Sustainable Resource Recovery Strategies Towards Zero Waste (FULLRECO4US) 

Available from: 2023-01-03 Created: 2023-01-03 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
4. Household fermentation of leftover bread to nutritious food
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Household fermentation of leftover bread to nutritious food
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2022 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 150, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Resource dependency of food production is aggravated when food is wasted. In Sweden, it is estimated that 37% of the total bread waste is generated at the household level. This work aimed to assess whether fermentation using edible filamentous fungi at households can provide a solution to valorize leftover bread in the production of fungi-based food for consumption. Bread was fermented in household and laboratory conditions with Neurospora intermedia and Rhizopus oligosporus. The results show that bread can be successfully and easily fermented at households, without signs of microbial contamination even though the conditions were not sterile. Fermentation at the household resulted in higher protein, fat and fiber content as well as greater starch reduction compared to the samples fermented under laboratory conditions. Household engagement in bread fermentation will likely depend on values that motivate reusing leftover bread. Perceived values that are expected to motivate engagement vary across individuals, but may include improved nutritional benefits, food waste prevention, convenience, responsibilities, and being part of sustainable societies and actions.

Keywords
Waste prevention, Food loss, Functional food, Filamentous fungi, Circular economy, Sustainability, Food security
National Category
Food Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28888 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2022.06.038 (DOI)000873370300005 ()2-s2.0-85133278449 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), 20201656
Available from: 2022-11-07 Created: 2022-11-07 Last updated: 2023-04-18Bibliographically approved

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