Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7103-4628
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
According to the author(s), the content of this publication falls within the area of sustainable development.
Abstract [en]

To address the current plastic pollution problem, the replacement of conventional plastics with bioplastics can be considered. Although the land use of crop cultivation for bioplastics is still negligible, there is an increasing interest in the utilisation of lignocellulosic waste products for the production of bioplastics. A latest trend in researching sources for bioplastic production focuses on the use of fruit and vegetable wastes because of their versatile polysaccharides. Among different fruit wastes, orange waste and apple pomace have been evaluated as raw materials in this thesis.

The development of biofilms and 3D objects from the above-mentioned raw materials via the solution casting and compression moulding methods was investigated. Biocomposites are generally made from a bioplastic matrix and reinforcement, or a plastic reinforced with natural fibres. In the present study, pectin was used as a matrix, and cellulosic fibres wereused as reinforcement. Orange waste films had an opaque appearance with a yellowish colour and were very flexible, while the 3D objects had brown colour. The films had mechanical properties comparable with those of commodity plastics, such as 32 to 36 MPa tensile strength. The films were biodegradable under anaerobic conditions, and 3D objects showed good biodegradability in soil. Grafting of orange waste with maleic anhydride was performed in order to improve its properties, e.g. the hydrophilicity of the polysaccharides-based materials. Grafting reduced the density by 40 % and increased the hydrophobicity compared with unmodified orange waste. Further improvements included upgrading the film casting method and incorporating maleic anhydride in the recipe. The lowest amount of necessary maleic anhydride was determined (0.4 %), and the resulting films had a smoother and more uniform surface. The original methods were also applied to apple pomace in order to produce films and 3D objects. Films from apple pomace had an elongation of 55 %, a twofold increase compared to that of orange waste films containing maleic anhydride (28 %). Orange waste and apple pomace were also mixed for 3D object fabrication, achieving the highest strength of 5.8 MPa (ratio of 75 to 25, respectively) a threefold increase compared to that achieved with only orange waste alone (1.8 MPa).

The results are promising‚ but further improvements, e.g. in respect to hydrophilicity and upscaling‚ are needed for orange waste and apple pomace to develop into raw materials for next-generation bioplastics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2018.
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 93
Keywords [en]
apple pomace, biodegradable, bioplastics, circular economy, orange waste, resource recovery
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15463ISBN: 978-91-88838-21-6 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88838-22-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-15463DiVA, id: diva2:1270941
Public defence
2019-02-22, E310, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00
Opponent
Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling
Show others...
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, Vol. 2017, p. 1-9, article id 9732329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While citrus waste is abundantly generated, the disposal methods used today remain unsatisfactory: they can be deleterious for ruminants, can cause soil salinity, or are not economically feasible; yet citrus waste consists of various valuable polymers. This paper introduces a novel environmentally safe approach that utilizes citrus waste polymers as a biobased and biodegradable film, for example, for food packaging. Orange waste has been investigated for biofilm production, using the gelling ability of pectin and the strength of cellulosic fibres. A casting method was used to form a film from the previously washed, dried, and milled orange waste. Two film-drying methods, a laboratory oven and an incubator shaker, were compared. FE-SEM images confirmed a smoother film morphology when the incubator shaker was used for drying. The tensile strength of the films was 31.67 ± 4.21 and 34.76 ± 2.64 MPa, respectively, for the oven-dried and incubator-dried films, which is within the range of different commodity plastics. Additionally, biodegradability of the films was confirmed under anaerobic conditions. Films showed an opaque appearance with yellowish colour.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12981 (URN)10.1155/2017/9732329 (DOI)000414729600001 ()2-s2.0-85042320662 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
2. Synthesis and characterization of maleic anhydride-grafted orange waste for potential use in biocomposites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and characterization of maleic anhydride-grafted orange waste for potential use in biocomposites
Show others...
2018 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 4986-4997Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
bioplymers, esterification, grafting, maleic anhydride, orange waste, pectin
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14204 (URN)10.15376/biores.13.3.4986-4997 (DOI)000440506300018 ()
Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
3. Anaerobic degradation of bioplastics: A review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic degradation of bioplastics: A review
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Waste Management, Vol. 80, p. 406-413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), leading to renewableenergy production in the form of methane, is a preferable method for dealing with the increasing amountof waste. Food waste is separated at the source in many countries for anaerobic digestion. However, thepresence of plastic bags is a major challenge for such processes. This study investigated the anaerobicdegradability of different bioplastics, aiming at potential use as collecting bags for the OFMSW. Thechemical composition of the bioplastics and the microbial community structure in the AD processaffected the biodegradation of the bioplastics. Some biopolymers can be degraded at hydraulic retentiontimes usually applied at the biogas plants, such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s, starch, cellulose and pectin,so no possible contamination would occur. In the future, updated standardization of collecting bags forthe OFMSW will be required to meet the requirements of effective operation of a biogas plant.

Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Biodegradation, Bioplastics, Food waste, Methane, Plastic bags
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15152 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2018.09.040 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054156950 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
4. The effect of glycerol, sugar and maleic anhydride on pectin-cellulose biofilms prepared from orange waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of glycerol, sugar and maleic anhydride on pectin-cellulose biofilms prepared from orange waste
Show others...
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Keywords
biofilm, glycerol, maleic anhydride, orange waste, sugar
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15716 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-02-04
5. Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. 

Keywords
apple pomace, biofilm, biomaterials, compression molding, fiberboard, solution casting
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15718 (URN)10.3390/polym11020289 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061399977 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

inlaga(4889 kB)525 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 4889 kBChecksum SHA-512
7c26c0231a8f5e5e7a73d26200a9f0c5c736696f1e1365441d1563ce917467be70c4bf2c00c99b4cb57baacab94e43c87b40c81cb3ed69a5c68d3c78da7366cf
Type insideMimetype application/pdf
omslag(444 kB)33 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 444 kBChecksum SHA-512
ab60b9d3e09465de293560487d57fec49e4d79a1193dfd6eeb627e411e6d654604401a5f827ff77d88a3137302b650ca54f1c3b5aae0d5e12761ef28edb957f7
Type coverMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Bátori, Veronika

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bátori, Veronika
By organisation
Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1194 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf