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Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Rousta, N., Aslan, M., Yesilcimen Akbas, M., Ozcan, F., Sar, T. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2023). Effects of fungal based bioactive compounds on human health: Review paper. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 1-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of fungal based bioactive compounds on human health: Review paper
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2023 (English)In: Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, ISSN 1040-8398, E-ISSN 1549-7852, p. 1-24Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the first years of history, microbial fermentation products such as bread, wine, yogurt and vinegar have always been noteworthy regarding their nutritional and health effects. Similarly, mushrooms have been a valuable food product in point of both nutrition and medicine due to their rich chemical components. Alternatively, filamentous fungi, which can be easier to produce, play an active role in the synthesis of some bioactive compounds, which are also important for health, as well as being rich in protein content. Therefore, this review presents some important bioactive compounds (bioactive peptides, chitin/chitosan, β-glucan, gamma-aminobutyric acid, L-carnitine, ergosterol and fructooligosaccharides) synthesized by fungal strains and their health benefits. In addition, potential probiotic- and prebiotic fungi were researched to determine their effects on gut microbiota. The current uses of fungal based bioactive compounds for cancer treatment were also discussed. The use of fungal strains in the food industry, especially to develop innovative food production, has been seen as promising microorganisms in obtaining healthy and nutritious food.

Keywords
Bioactive compounds, health benefits, fungal biomass, functional food, gut microbiata, anti-cancer
National Category
Food Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29533 (URN)10.1080/10408398.2023.2178379 (DOI)000935821600001 ()2-s2.0-85148352654 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-13 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved
Rousta, N. (2023). Harnessing the potential of filamentous fungi for sustainable and healthy food system. (Doctoral dissertation). Borås: Högskolan i Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Harnessing the potential of filamentous fungi for sustainable and healthy food system
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Food systems have the potential to improve human health while contributing to environmental sustainability; however, they are currently endangering both. The current food system, which is often based on animal farming, is responsible for global greenhouse gas emissions, and increases the incidence of, and mortality from, non-communicable diseases. Providing the growing global population with healthy food from sustainable systems is an urgent requirement. Microbial fermentation is expected to play a significant role in the transition to sustainable and healthy food systems. Microorganisms, such as edible filamentous fungi, can be a part of the solution. The versatility of filamentous fungi enables them to grow on a variety of substrates in submerged or solid-state fermentation, which minimizes substrate limitations, as well as exhaustive land and water requirements in the cultivation process. In this thesis, the potential of filamentous fungi in the production of sustainable and healthy food, and optimization of fungal biomass production through submerged fermentation on synthetic glucose- and oat-based media, were studied. Additionally, scale-up, sensory characteristics, and nutritional profiles were assessed.

In order to evaluate the production of sustainable and healthy food from filamentous fungi, Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus that is commonly used in food production, was cultivated on oat flour in a pilot-scale airlift bioreactor. The nutrient-rich fungal biomass obtained by increasing the protein content was characterized by an improved ratio of essential amino and fatty acids, and an increase in dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Fungal biomass was converted to Burger patties with minimal downstream processing, which were then subjected to sensory evaluation using an untrained panel. Inspired by the ability of filamentous fungi to produce different bioactive compounds, four strains of edible filamentous fungi commercially used in food production, namely, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia, and Rhizopus oligosporus, were cultivated in a semi-synthetic medium using submerged fermentation to screen for the synthesis of the bioactive compound L-carnitine. The formation of L-carnitine can be enhanced by modulating various factors, such as the fungal strain, cultivation time, and the presence of yeast extract. Aspergillus oryzae was found to have a much greater potential for L-carnitine production than Rhizopus sp and Neurospora intermedia.

In terms of moving towards a sustainable and healthy food supply system, this thesis might contribute not only industrially but also in terms of policy development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2023
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 143
Keywords
sustainable food system, mycoprotein, bioactive compounds, L-carnitine, submerged fermentation, healthy food, edible filamentous fungi
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30011 (URN)978-91-89833-18-0 (ISBN)978-91-89833-19-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-09-11, C203, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-06-30 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved
Hellwig, C., Rousta, N., Wikandari, R., Taherzadeh, M. J., Häggblom-Kronlöf, G., Bolton, K. & Rousta, K. (2022). Household fermentation of leftover bread to nutritious food. Waste Management, 150, 39-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Household fermentation of leftover bread to nutritious food
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2022 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 150, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Resource dependency of food production is aggravated when food is wasted. In Sweden, it is estimated that 37% of the total bread waste is generated at the household level. This work aimed to assess whether fermentation using edible filamentous fungi at households can provide a solution to valorize leftover bread in the production of fungi-based food for consumption. Bread was fermented in household and laboratory conditions with Neurospora intermedia and Rhizopus oligosporus. The results show that bread can be successfully and easily fermented at households, without signs of microbial contamination even though the conditions were not sterile. Fermentation at the household resulted in higher protein, fat and fiber content as well as greater starch reduction compared to the samples fermented under laboratory conditions. Household engagement in bread fermentation will likely depend on values that motivate reusing leftover bread. Perceived values that are expected to motivate engagement vary across individuals, but may include improved nutritional benefits, food waste prevention, convenience, responsibilities, and being part of sustainable societies and actions.

Keywords
Waste prevention, Food loss, Functional food, Filamentous fungi, Circular economy, Sustainability, Food security
National Category
Food Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28888 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2022.06.038 (DOI)000873370300005 ()2-s2.0-85133278449 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), 20201656
Available from: 2022-11-07 Created: 2022-11-07 Last updated: 2023-04-18Bibliographically approved
Sar, T., Rousta, N., Mahboubi, A. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2022). Media preparation and sterilization in bioprocesses. In: Advances in Bioprocess Engineering: (pp. 399-430). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media preparation and sterilization in bioprocesses
2022 (English)In: Advances in Bioprocess Engineering, Elsevier , 2022, p. 399-430Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fermentation and bioprocesses in which various metabolites from food to pharmaceutics are produced are constantly evolving. This section is devoted to contamination risks and their eliminations, media preparation, decontamination, and sterilization methods for such processes. For contamination, sources of microbial contaminations and decontamination (physical and chemical) practices are discussed. In addition, sterilization methods (heat, filtration, chemical, and radiation) that are applied for the removal of microorganisms from small-scale to large-scale instruments, gases, and liquids are explained. In the preparation of the media, the batching area, developed equipment, and methods for large-scale reactors are mentioned. In summary, the preparation and sterilization of the media in bioprocesses from laboratory-scale reactors to industrial-scale reactors are evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Series
Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Keywords
bioprocesses, contamination, industrial-scale fermentation, Media preparation, sterilization
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29911 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-323-91167-2.00011-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150081150 (Scopus ID)9780323911672 (ISBN)9780323984836 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-16 Created: 2023-06-16 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Rousta, N., Larsson, K., Fristedt, R., Undeland, I., Agnihotri, S. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2022). Production of fungal biomass from oat flour for the use as a nutritious food source. NFS Journal, 29, 8-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of fungal biomass from oat flour for the use as a nutritious food source
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2022 (English)In: NFS Journal, ISSN 2352-3646, Vol. 29, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fermentation can be a powerful tool for developing new sustainable foods with increased nutritional value and fermented microbial biomass derived from filamentous fungi is a promising example. This study investigates the nutritional profile of edible Aspergillus oryzae biomass produced under submerged fermentation (SmF) using oat flour as a substrate. The fermentation occurred in a 1m3 airlift bioreactor during 48 h at 35 °C and the nutritional profile of the produced fungal biomass in terms of amino acids, fatty acids, minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn), vitamins (E, D2), and dietary fiber was compared to oat flour as well as pure fungal biomass grown on semi-synthetic medium. The total amount of amino acids increased from 11% per dry weight (dw) in oat flour to 23.5% dw in oat fungal biomass with an improved relative ratio of essential amino acids (0.37 to 0.42). An increase in dietary fibers, minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu), vitamin E, as well as vitamin D2 were also obtained in the oat fungal biomass compared to oat flour. Moreover, the short chain omega-3 α-linolenic acid (ALA) and omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) values increased from 0.6 to 8.4 and 21.7 to 68.4 (mg/g dry weight sample), respectively, in oat fungal biomass. The results indicate that fungal biomass grown on oat flour could have a potential application in the food industry as a nutritious source for a wide variety of products.

 

Keywords
Oat flour, Submerged cultivation, Nutritious food source, Edible filamentous fungi, Nutritional profile
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29299 (URN)10.1016/j.nfs.2022.09.001 (DOI)001026123100002 ()2-s2.0-85139368230 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2023-01-17 Created: 2023-01-17 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Rousta, N., Hellwig, C., Wainaina, S., Lukitawesa, L., Agnihotri, S., Rousta, K. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2021). Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae for Food: From Submerged Cultivation to Fungal Burgers and Their Sensory Evaluation – A Pilot Study. Foods, 10(11), Article ID 2774.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae for Food: From Submerged Cultivation to Fungal Burgers and Their Sensory Evaluation – A Pilot Study
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2021 (English)In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 2774Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New food sources are explored to provide food security in sustainable ways. The submerged fermentation of edible filamentous fungi is a promising strategy to provide nutritious and affordable food that is expected to have a low environmental impact. The aim of the current study was to assess the novel use of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated in submerged fermentation on oat flour as a source for food products that do not undergo secondary fermentation or significant downstream processing. The fungus was cultivated in a pilot-scale airlift bioreactor, and the biomass concentration and protein content of the biomass were assessed. A tasting with an untrained panel assessed consumer preferences regarding the taste and texture of minimally processed vegetarian and vegan burger patties made from the biomass, and how the patties fared against established meat-alternative-based patties. The cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae resulted in a yield of 6 g/L dry biomass with a protein content of 37% on a dry weight basis. The taste and texture of the minimally processed fungal burger patties were to the liking of some participants. This was also reflected in diverse feedback provided by the participants. The cultivation of the fungus on oat flour and its utilization in developing burger patties shows its promising potential for the production of nutritious food. The applications of the fungus can be further developed by exploring other favorable ways to texture and season this relatively new functional food source to the preferences of consumers. 

Keywords
Plant Science, Health Professions (miscellaneous), Health(social science), Microbiology, Food Science
National Category
Engineering and Technology Natural Sciences Social Sciences
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26900 (URN)10.3390/foods10112774 (DOI)000806924000001 ()2-s2.0-85119110546 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-11-12 Created: 2021-11-12 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved
Rousta, N., Ferreira, J. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2021). Production of L-carnitine-enriched edible filamentous fungal biomass through submerged cultivation. Bioengineered, 12(1), 358-368
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of L-carnitine-enriched edible filamentous fungal biomass through submerged cultivation
2021 (English)In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 358-368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The edible filamentous fungi are hot candidate for future supply of functional food and feed with e.g. protein, essential amino acids, and compounds with immunostimulant activity. L-carnitine that plays a crucial role in energy metabolism represents a functional compound normally produced by Zygomycetes filamentous fungus Rhizopus oligosporus in solid-state fermentation. The present study provides the first insights on production of L-carnitine-enriched edible fungal biomass through submerged cultivation of several Ascomycetes and Zygomycetes including Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia, Rhizopus oryzae, and Rhizopus oligosporus. A. oryzae with 3 mg L-carnitine yield per gram of fungal biomass, indicates great potential on production of this bioactive compound which is remarkably higher than the other tested fungi in this work and also previous studies. In addition to fungal strain, other factors such as cultivation time and presence of yeast extract were found to play a role. Further studies on submerged growth optimization of A. oryzae in both high-quality recipes and in medium based on low-value substrates are proposed in order to clarify its potential for production of L-carnitine-enriched fungal biomass. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
Aspergillus oryzae, bioactive compounds, edible filamentous fungi, functional food, L-carnitine, submerged cultivation, 2 oxoglutaric acid, amino acid, carnitine, chemical compound, coenzyme A, gamma butyrobetaine, glucose, glycerol, hydroxyl trimethyllysine aldolase, immunostimulating agent, lactic acid, lysine, methionine, trimethyl aminobutyraldehyde, trimethyllysine, unclassified drug, vitamin, Article, centrifugation, colorimetry, controlled study, diet supplementation, energy metabolism, fermentation, filamentous fungus, fluorometry, fungal biomass, glucose intake, high performance liquid chromatography, hydroxylation, ion exchange chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, mushroom, Neurospora intermedia, nonhuman, Pleurotus ostreatus, refraction index, Rhizopus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, spectrophotometry, temperature, yeast, Zygomycetes
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-25821 (URN)10.1080/21655979.2020.1863618 (DOI)000607662100001 ()33323030 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85100070001 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-06 Created: 2021-07-06 Last updated: 2023-08-18
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6853-9147

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