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Sar, Taner, PostdoctorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2369-9638
Publications (10 of 46) Show all publications
Sar, T., Ferreira, J. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2024). A study on the use of olive oil mill wastewater to produce protein-rich fungal biomass. In: : . Paper presented at Innovations in Food Loss and Waste Management.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study on the use of olive oil mill wastewater to produce protein-rich fungal biomass
2024 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While olive oil is an important food product in the Mediterranean Sea Basin, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) and olive pomace, which are by-products of olive oil, are released in excessive quantities. OMWW is an important source of environmental pollutants due to its slightly acidic pH, high contents of phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD). To overcome this problem, it was aimed to investigate the potential use of OOMW as an alternative substrate for biomass production by filamentous fungi in this study. For the cultivation, three edible fungi (Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72, Neurospora intermedia CBS 131.92, and Rhizopus delemar CBS 145940) were tested. Among them, A. oryzae was found to be a promising fungus in biomass production containing 14.9% protein. The protein content of the biomass was improved to 44.9% (w/w) by adding a nitrogen source (sodium nitrate) and removing the suspended solids. Concomitantly, 35-44% of COD reduction was also obtained after the fungal cultivation. Thus, the potential use of olive oil mill wastewater for the cultivation of fungal biomass was determined and at the same time, its pre-treatment was provided. However, the content of the obtained fungal biomass should be determined and its usability as feed should be investigated.

Keywords
Valorization, bioconversion, single cell protein, wastewater treatment.
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31503 (URN)
Conference
Innovations in Food Loss and Waste Management
Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Mukesh Kumar, A., Sar, T., Gowd, S. C., Rajendran, K., Kumar, V., Sarsaiya, S., . . . Taherzadeh, M. J. (2023). A comprehensive review on thermochemical, and biochemical conversion methods of lignocellulosic biomass into valuable end product. Fuel, 342, Article ID 127790.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive review on thermochemical, and biochemical conversion methods of lignocellulosic biomass into valuable end product
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2023 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 342, article id 127790Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignocellulosic wastes have emerged as a potential feedstock in the last decades. There are multiple reasons for its abundance, easy availability, economic, and abundant sources. It can be used to produce several value-added products. Among them, fuel is considered one of the important requirements. Production of fuel from lignocellulosic biomass is a tricky business. The major reason for its failure is the low product yield. Therefore, high yield and low-cost are the two key parameters which need significant optimization. To achieve the target several newer technologies such as pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and gasification have emerged. These techniques are much more efficient than that of conventional acid or alkali. At the same time quality of the product is also improved. The focus of this review is to analyze the efficiency of chemical conversion of lignocellulosic residues into valuable fuels keeping in mind the cost-reduction strategies. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Biochemical conversion, Lignocellulosic residues, Renewable fuels, Thermochemical conversion, Biomass, Conversion methods, End-products, Lignocellulosic biomass, Lignocellulosic wastes, Potential feedstock, Value added products, Cost reduction
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30306 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.127790 (DOI)000939839100001 ()2-s2.0-85150358947 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Sar, T. & Akbas, M. Y. (2023). Antimicrobial Activities of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater Extracts against Selected Microorganisms. Sustainability, 15(10), Article ID 8179.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial Activities of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater Extracts against Selected Microorganisms
2023 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 10, article id 8179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Discovering eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic chemicals has become an increasingly popular area of research. Natural products are now in the spotlight for their potential use as replacements for synthetic chemicals. To maximize the benefits of these natural products, it is important to use efficient extraction methods, especially from agroindustrial waste. Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) is a byproduct of the olive oil production process and is considered a pollutant; however, OOMW contains a wide range of phenolic compounds that have proven antimicrobial properties. This study investigates the extraction of these compounds from OOMW, with the aim of determining their potential antimicrobial activities against several bacterial strains and fungi, including Bacillus spizizenii, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans. The OOMW extracts (OEs) were prepared by using three different solvents: ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol. The highest total phenolic contents (4.03 g, GAE/L) and the strongest antibacterial activity were obtained with methanol extraction. All OEs showed no antifungal activity against C. albicans. OEs, particularly methanol extracts of OOMW, can be used as bioactive substances in various industries as nutraceuticals and food ingredients, respectively.

Keywords
olive oil processing, antibacterial, biorefinery, extraction, food waste
National Category
Bioprocess Technology Microbiology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29920 (URN)10.3390/su15108179 (DOI)000996678100001 ()2-s2.0-85160957408 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-16 Created: 2023-06-16 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Haykir, N. I., Nizan Shikh Zahari, S. M., Harirchi, S., Sar, T., Awasthi, M. K. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2023). Applications of ionic liquids for the biochemical transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and biochemicals: A critical review. Biochemical engineering journal, 193, Article ID 108850.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of ionic liquids for the biochemical transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and biochemicals: A critical review
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2023 (English)In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 193, article id 108850Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignocellulosic materials are valuable resources in today's bioprocess technologies; however, their recalcitrance is a major barrier in industry regarding their conversion to microbial products. For this purpose, in this study, the synthesis of ionic liquids (ILs), its function in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, its biochemistry and possible toxic effects were investigated. In addition, the bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials pretreated with ionic liquids to biofuels (bioethanol, biobutanol, biogas and hydrogen) and various biochemicals is discussed in detail. For this, the focus is on the potential of ILs for industrial integration and use in large-scale reactors. ILs offer significant advantages due to their potential for ease of use and their features such as recovery and reuse after pretreatment. However, there are economic and technical problems that need to be solved to expand ILs in industrial systems and increase their use potential. To overcome these problems and the usability of ILs technologies in industry, techno-economic analyses has been examined and compared with traditional processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Biorefinery, Function, Microbial production, Renewable energy, Techno-economic analysis, Bioethanol, Biomass, Economic analysis, Ionic liquids, alcohol, biofuel, biogas, butanol, hydrogen, ionic liquid, lignocellulose, Biochemical transformation, Biofuels and biochemicals, Bioprocesses, Biorefineries, Critical review, Lignocellulosic biomass, Lignocellulosic material, Renewable energies, acidity, Article, biochemical analysis, biochemistry, biotransformation, chemical reaction, hydrolysis, purification, saccharification, synthesis, Toxic materials
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30310 (URN)10.1016/j.bej.2023.108850 (DOI)000943181600001 ()2-s2.0-85148350676 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Braho, V., Sar, T. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2023). Cultivation of edible filamentous fungi on pomegranate by-products as feedstocks to produce mycoprotein. Systems Microbiology and Biomanufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cultivation of edible filamentous fungi on pomegranate by-products as feedstocks to produce mycoprotein
2023 (English)In: Systems Microbiology and Biomanufacturing, ISSN 2662-7655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pomegranate, renowned for its delectable taste and remarkable nutritional profile, has witnessed a surge in both production and consumption. However, the by-products generated during industrial processes, such as peels and seeds, have the potential for adverse environmental impacts if not meticulously managed. Similarly, expired fruit juices or spillages that may occur during manufacturing and transportation contribute to agri-food waste. This study focused on the comprehensive assessment of pomegranate by-products and pomegranate juice using ascomycetes and zygomycetes filamentous fungi, namely Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oligosporus, and Neurospora intermedia to obtain mycoprotein for sustainable vegan food production. The findings revealed that pomegranate juice, both fresh and expired commercial, contained essential nutrients for fungal biomass production (up to 0.024 g biomass/mL juice). Nonetheless, fresh juice emerges as a more potent medium in terms of protein production than commercial juice. Cultivating A. oryzae yielded a biomass of 0.39 (g biomass/g peel) from pomegranate peel, while concurrently raising the protein content of raw pomegranate peel from 30.89 g/kg to 85.41 g/kg. Furthermore, incorporating yeast extract into the peel medium not only resulted in an enhanced biomass yield of 0.49 (g biomass/g peel) but also significantly elevated the protein content to 198.63 g/kg. This study provides valuable insights into the potential of pomegranate peel and juice as promising substrate for fungal biomass production, offering opportunities for the development of innovative food and feed products. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Pomegranate peel, Food waste, Mycoprotein, Biomass production, Protein recovery, Waste management
National Category
Food Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30982 (URN)10.1007/s43393-023-00212-0 (DOI)001205782800018 ()2-s2.0-85175794400 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2024-05-13Bibliographically approved
Usino, D., Sar, T., Ylitervo, P. & Richards, T. (2023). Effect of Acid Pretreatment on the Primary Products of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis. Energies, 16(5), Article ID 2377.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Acid Pretreatment on the Primary Products of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis
2023 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 5, article id 2377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A high load of inorganics in raw lignocellulosic biomass is known to inhibit the yield of bio-oil and alter the chemical reactions during fast pyrolysis of biomass. In this study, palm kernel shell (PKS), an agricultural residue from palm oil production, and two other woody biomass samples (mahogany (MAH) sawdust and iroko (IRO) sawdust) were pretreated with distilled water or an acidic solution (either acetic, formic, hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4)) before fast pyrolysis in order to investigate its effect on the primary products and pyrolysis reaction pathways. The raw and pretreated PKS, MAH and IRO were pyrolysed at 600 °C and 5 s with a micro-pyrolyser connected to a gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer/flame ionisation detector (GC-MS/FID). Of the leaching solutions, HCl was the most effective in removing inorganics from the biomass and enhancing the primary pyrolysis product formed compared to the organic acids (acetic and formic acid). The production of levoglucosan was greatly improved for all pretreated biomasses when compared to the original biomass but especially after HCl pretreatment. Additionally, the relative content of the saccharides was maximised after pretreatment with H2SO4, which was due to the increased production of levoglucosenone. The relative content of the saccharides increased by over 70%. This increase may have occurred due to a possible reaction catalysed by the remaining acid in the biomass. The production of furans, especially furfural, was increased for all pretreatments but most noticeable when H2SO4 was used. However, the relative content of acids and ketones was generally reduced for PKS, MAH and IRO across all leaching solutions. The relative content of the phenol-type compound decreased to a large extent during pyrolysis after acid pretreatment, which may be attributed to dehydration and demethoxylation reactions. This study shows that the production of valuable chemicals could be promoted by pretreatment with different acid solutions.

Keywords
fast pyrolysis, primary products, pretreatment of biomass, Py-GC/MS/FID
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29503 (URN)10.3390/en16052377 (DOI)000947431700001 ()2-s2.0-85149769711 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-03 Created: 2023-03-03 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Rousta, N., Aslan, M., Yesilcimen Akbas, M., Ozcan, F., Sar, T. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2023). Effects of fungal based bioactive compounds on human health: Review paper. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 1-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of fungal based bioactive compounds on human health: Review paper
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2023 (English)In: Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, ISSN 1040-8398, E-ISSN 1549-7852, p. 1-24Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the first years of history, microbial fermentation products such as bread, wine, yogurt and vinegar have always been noteworthy regarding their nutritional and health effects. Similarly, mushrooms have been a valuable food product in point of both nutrition and medicine due to their rich chemical components. Alternatively, filamentous fungi, which can be easier to produce, play an active role in the synthesis of some bioactive compounds, which are also important for health, as well as being rich in protein content. Therefore, this review presents some important bioactive compounds (bioactive peptides, chitin/chitosan, β-glucan, gamma-aminobutyric acid, L-carnitine, ergosterol and fructooligosaccharides) synthesized by fungal strains and their health benefits. In addition, potential probiotic- and prebiotic fungi were researched to determine their effects on gut microbiota. The current uses of fungal based bioactive compounds for cancer treatment were also discussed. The use of fungal strains in the food industry, especially to develop innovative food production, has been seen as promising microorganisms in obtaining healthy and nutritious food.

Keywords
Bioactive compounds, health benefits, fungal biomass, functional food, gut microbiata, anti-cancer
National Category
Food Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29533 (URN)10.1080/10408398.2023.2178379 (DOI)000935821600001 ()2-s2.0-85148352654 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-13 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved
Uwineza, C., Bouzarjomehr, M., Parchami, M., Sar, T., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Mahboubi, A. (2023). Evaluation of in vitro digestibility of Aspergillus oryzae fungal biomass grown on organic residue derived-VFAs as a promising ruminant feed supplement. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 14, Article ID 120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of in vitro digestibility of Aspergillus oryzae fungal biomass grown on organic residue derived-VFAs as a promising ruminant feed supplement
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2049-1891, Vol. 14, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

As demand for high quality animal feed continues to raise, it becomes increasingly important to minimize the environmental impact of feed production. An appealing sustainable approach to provide feed fractions is to use organic residues from agro-food industry. In this regard, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids, derived from bioconversion of organic residues can be used as precursors for production of microbial protein with ruminant feed inclusion potential. This study aims to investigate the in vitro digestibility of the Aspergillus oryzae edible fungal biomass cultivated on VFAs-derived from anaerobic digestion of residues. The produced fungal protein biomass, along with hay clover silage and rapeseed meal were subjected to various in vitro assays using two-stage Tilley and Terry (TT), gas, and bag methods to evaluate and compare its digestibility for application in ruminant feed.

Results

The produced fungal biomass contained a higher crude protein (CP) (41%–49%) and rather similar neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (41%–56%) compared to rapeseed meal. The rumen in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the fungal biomass in the TT method ranged from 82% to 88% (statistically similar to that of the gas method (72% to 85%)). The IVDMD of fungal biomass were up to 26% and 40% greater than that of hay clover silage and rapeseed meal, respectively. The type of substrate and bag method had pronounced effect on the fermentation products (ammonium-N (NH4+-N), total gas and VFAs). Fungal biomass digestion resulted in the highest release of NH4+-N (340–540 mg/L) and the ratio of acetate to propionate ratio (3.5) among subjected substrates.

Conclusion

The results indicate that gas method can be used as a reliable predictor for IVDMD as well as fermentation products. Furthermore, the high IVDMD and fermentation product observed for Aspergillus oryzae fungal biomass digestion, suggest that the supplementation of fungal biomass will contribute to improving the rumen digestion by providing necessary nitrogen and energy to the ruminant and microbiota.

Keywords
Aspergillus oryzae, Fungal biomass, In vitro dry matter digestibility, Ruminant feed, Volatile fatty acids
National Category
Agricultural Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30702 (URN)10.1186/s40104-023-00922-4 (DOI)001084403800001 ()2-s2.0-85173759399 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-01 Created: 2023-11-01 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Awasthi, M. K., Kumar, V., Hellwig, C., Wikandari, R., Harirchi, S., Sar, T., . . . Taherzadeh, M. J. (2023). Filamentous fungi for sustainable vegan food production systems within a circular economy: Present status and future prospects. Food Research International, 164, Article ID 112318.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Filamentous fungi for sustainable vegan food production systems within a circular economy: Present status and future prospects
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2023 (English)In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 164, article id 112318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Filamentous fungi serve as potential candidates in the production of different value-added products. In the context of food, there are several advantages of using filamentous fungi for food. Among the main advantages is that the fungal biomass used food not only meets basic nutritional requirements but that it is also rich in protein, low in fat, and free of cholesterol. This speaks to the potential of filamentous fungi in the production of food that can substitute animal-derived protein sources such as meat. Moreover, life-cycle analyses and techno-economic analyses reveal that fungal proteins perform better than animal-derived proteins in terms of land use efficiency as well as global warming. The present article provides an overview of the potential of filamentous fungi as a source of food and food supplements. The commercialization potential as well as social, legal and safety issues of fungi-based food products are discussed.

Keywords
Filamentous fungi, Circular economy, Myco-based, Food products, Food supplement
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29197 (URN)10.1016/j.foodres.2022.112318 (DOI)000915625600001 ()2-s2.0-85144090400 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-10 Created: 2023-01-10 Last updated: 2023-02-06Bibliographically approved
Wang, R., Sar, T., Mahboubi, A., Fristedt, R., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Undeland, I. (2023). In vitro protein digestibility of edible filamentous fungi compared to common food protein sources. Food Bioscience, 54, Article ID 102862.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vitro protein digestibility of edible filamentous fungi compared to common food protein sources
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2023 (English)In: Food Bioscience, ISSN 2212-4292, E-ISSN 2212-4306, Vol. 54, article id 102862Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Edible filamentous fungi, as a source of mycoprotein, is an emerging sustainable protein source as it can be cultivated on food-industry sidestreams, thus providing the food system with circularity. However, the digestibility of mycoprotein from different species of fungi is yet to be studied and compared to commonly consumed food proteins derived from muscle. Using the static INFOGEST in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion protocol, but with less pancreatin than the recommended amount to omit high background from enzyme autolysis, this study investigated the protein degree of hydrolysis (DH%) and amino acid accessibility of five species of edible fungi in comparison with salmon fillet, chicken breast, beef tenderloin and casein. Three of the edible fungi species reached protein DH% between 58% ± 2.6% and 62% ± 5.6% during GI digestion compared to chicken, salmon, and beef reaching 62%–67% as well as casein at 55%. The amino acid accessibility of fungi (81%–92%), was comparable to that of salmon, chicken breast, and beef (90%–94%). This study thus indicated that edible fungi is a sustainable and nutritionally sound protein source.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Amino acid, Degree of hydrolysis, Edible filamentous fungi, In vitro digestion, Protein
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30295 (URN)10.1016/j.fbio.2023.102862 (DOI)001039144900001 ()2-s2.0-85164349427 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2369-9638

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