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Harper, S. (2024). Resilient local manufacturing in Sjuhärad: Supply network configuration decision-making and implementation.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilient local manufacturing in Sjuhärad: Supply network configuration decision-making and implementation
2024 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

This report details the second study undertaken within the research project “Resilient supply chains for local textile and clothing production in small series” with funding from Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad.

Specifically, this report summarizes the results of an interview study focused on understanding the perspectives of practitioners operating within the Sjuhärad region in Western Sweden regarding what is required to implement and scale local textile and apparel manufacturing supply chains. These results are based on the perceptions of representatives from diverse companies that have had experience with local manufacturing and/or sourcing, or are interested in such opportunities. The companies interviewed for this study included eight producers, three brands currently implementing such local configurations, one with established local supply chains, and one brand interested in local manufacturing/sourcing. This represents diversity in both decision-making roles and experience.

This study specifically addresses localization opportunities in the textile and apparel industry, which face tensions and challenges, in particular related to location decisions and resilience as highlighted in the previous study. Here the focus is on implementation and scaling of such opportunities as they relate to the configuration of products, processes, relationships, and supply chain structures. The key results of the interview study show that many issues are relevant or crucial for both implementation and scaling in such production contexts, in particular several factors were highlighted that can also be challenging due to insufficient levels or other difficulties. 

  • Overall, brands show more focus on product-related considerations with implementation, like on-demand production and customization, as well as standardization, however, standardization is also suggested to be beneficial for producers regarding scaling, specifically expanding beyond material sharing between products to standardized products for reduced development costs.
  •  Several process considerations are both crucial and challenging, including the imperative of knowledge spanning from production skills like sewing to competence linked with required technology as well as business-related skills. Additionally, these considerations are linked to capacity requirements which are related to the need for or limitations related to competence, machinery, space, and so on. Moreover, they are linked to efficient processes in production and throughout the whole supply chain which can be challenging, and  remake and redesign processes which can benefit from improvements for instance, related to technology to overcome complexity.
  • The results show relationship considerations stresssed are related to supplier relationships (and trust) for both implementation and scaling. For scaling, customer relationships were  more of a focus, both with end-consumers, and between producers and brands.
  • Complexities and challenges are also highlighted related to supply chains, specifically location considerations that are difficult due to local supplier vulnerabilities and the location and availability of materials globally rather than locally. This finding adds insights to the complexity around location decisions as found in the previous study in this project, suggesting difficulties related to local manufacturing and resilience outcomes. Ownership and control was also emphasized, especially for brands.
  • Among the other considerations mentioned as crucial are several related to capabilities and performance priorities, including quality which is always strongly required and in some cases is challenging. Additionally, cost mindset changes were suggested, which is described as helpful for some brands to overcome cost challenges - which were highlighted in the earlier study - together with increasing product value through sustainability and customization. It is with these types of products that such local production is considered feasbile to implement, but local production is not necessarily required with such product focuses. Lead time and sustainability performance priorities and performance benefits are also crucial with local production including for further scaling. Additionally, capital was mentioned as being required to invest in marketing to end-consumers and grow demand, as well as to invest in improved processes and other efforts to grow.

The report also includes an overview of a workshop on future scenarios, which both confirms and adds to the results from the interview study. Looking forward, the requirements revealed in these two studies provide a foundation for a feasibility study.

Keywords
Local manufacturing, Supply chain design, Supply chain resilience, Implementation, Scaling
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31145 (URN)978-91-89833-35-7 (ISBN)
Note

Funder

Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad

No. 20221947

Available from: 2024-01-23 Created: 2024-01-23 Last updated: 2024-01-24Bibliographically approved
Harper, S., Pal, R. & Kumar, V. (2023). Modelling small-series supply network configuration and capabilities through a mixed-method structural analysis: Insights from high-cost textile/apparel contexts. International Journal of Services and Operations Management, 46(2), 232-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling small-series supply network configuration and capabilities through a mixed-method structural analysis: Insights from high-cost textile/apparel contexts
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Services and Operations Management, ISSN 1744-2370, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 232-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to understand supply network configuration for small-series production within high-cost contexts, and the context-specific decision logics associated. A total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) and MICMAC mixed-methods approach is used to determine and interpret interrelationships among SNC and capability-related aspects identified from the literature. Respondents come from EU textile/apparel companies, undertaking small-series production/sourcing in the region, with different roles in the value chain. The findings led to several propositions. They highlight the foundational nature of supply chain relationships and digital data sharing; interacting product/process flexibility and specialisation considerations, with associated enablers and barriers; the challenges related to location, which is the crucial supply chain driver; and the need to balance various interrelated capability drivers, such as quality, innovation, and sustainability. These findings can support practitioners for reconfiguration, and the approach can be used to address other contexts and thus enhance generalisability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2023
Keywords
supply network configuration, supply chain design, small-series production, decision-making, total interpretive structural modelling, TISM, operations management, textile/apparel, European Union, EU
National Category
Economics and Business Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27398 (URN)10.1504/IJSOM.2021.10042173 (DOI)
Projects
Fashion Big Data Business Model
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 761122
Available from: 2022-01-28 Created: 2022-01-28 Last updated: 2024-01-13
Harper, S. & Pal, R. (2023). Resilient Local Manufacturing In Sjuhärad: A Delphi Study To Identify Enablers And Challenges.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilient Local Manufacturing In Sjuhärad: A Delphi Study To Identify Enablers And Challenges
2023 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

This report details a Delphi study undertaken within the ongoing research project “Resilient supply chains for local textile and clothing production in small series” with funding from Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad-No.20221947. 

Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a Delphi study-designed to capture the level of agreement among practitioners operating within the Sjuhärad region in Western Sweden regarding the enablers and challenges of resilience within local textile and apparel manufacturing supply chains. These results are based on the perceptions of representatives from diverse companies that have had experience with local manufacturing and/or sourcing, which undertake activities within one or more value chain stages (textile manufacturing; garment manufacturing; retail). The two main steps of the Delphi study were, first to identify issues that are enablers and/or challenges-relevant to at least two companies within an interview round, and then to evaluate those issues using an online questionnaire to analyze and visualize levels of agreement. 

A key argument of the study and larger research project is that both localization opportunities and challenges are significant within the textile and apparel industry, due to having high risk exposure with complex global supply chain structures. So, there is a need to understand the complexity of such location decisions in this context, including associated trade-offs for resilience. On one hand, localization can lead to enhanced flexibility, responsiveness, and customization due to reduced complexity and shorter supply chain distances, but on the other hand local supply chains can reduce adaptability related to global network structures and can be challenged by cost trade-offs. To understand this complexity, the supply network configuration approach can be helpful-to show structures that underpin resilience. By addressing the supporting structures and capabilities required for resilience, this report can support development of more resilient supply chains by highlighting what is required for improved resilience outcomes (Competitiveness; Growth; Reduced risk exposure; Reduced recovery time) and what challenges must be overcome.

The key results of the Delphi study show moderate levels of resilience in the context, which is supported by several enablers, which can be challenging with insufficient levels. Agreement is found with enablers related to:

  • Capabilities and performance priorities (situational awareness; quality; delivery/short lead times; sustainability)
  • Processes (flexibility and agility; competence)
  • Relationships (close and long-term relationships; transparency and communication)

The only two challenges with high levels of agreement are competence limitations and high costs/cost trade-offs. However, the lack of both strong opinions and high levels of agreement about resilience indicates opportunities for improvement. The suggested need for managers to have strong situational awareness can be a key area to develop.

In contrast, there were more mixed opinions found among respondents about other enablers/challenges, including location as either an enabler or challenge for resilience, and challenges related to exposure to external risks/disruptions. This suggests diverse experiences related to localization in a context of increasing external challenges. Additionally, the lack of strong opinions about digital tools/automation as an enabler suggests additional development is required, although several respondents emphasize significant recent investments as crucial. The lack of strong agreement about product-related enablers/challenges suggests different perspectives on small-series production, although the majority of respondents consider focusing on small volume, high value products to be more an enabler of resilience than a challenge. Overall, these findings indicate that managers must carefully consider localization with respect to cost trade-offs, limited industry know-how and varying levels of exposure to other challenges in high-cost contexts. 

Looking forward, such insights related to enablers/challenges of resilience should be taken into consideration within decision-making processes-that define supply network configuration (products, processes, relationships, supply chain structures), with respect to implementation and scaling goals. Notably, the findings suggest companies are likely to need to invest in competence development, including process and technology-related skills, as well as sensing skills (awareness). However, careful consideration of cost trade-offs is required within such decision-making processes, which should be addressed throughout the supply chain from the perspective of actors with control over supply chains. Such decision-making considerations will be addressed in the following report within this research project.

Keywords
Supply chain resilience, Supply network configuration, High-cost contexts
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30445 (URN)978-91-89833-22-7 (ISBN)
Projects
Resilient supply chains for local textile and clothing production in small series
Note

Funder: Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad

Project No.20221947

Available from: 2023-09-07 Created: 2023-09-07 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Harper, S. & Pal, R. (2023). Supply network configuration for resilient high-cost textile and apparel manufacturing supply chains: A Delphi study. In: : . Paper presented at EurOMA-Leuven, Belgium (July 3-5).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supply network configuration for resilient high-cost textile and apparel manufacturing supply chains: A Delphi study
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Increasing disruptions demand understanding challenges with localizing supply chains for resilience. These opportunities and challenges are significant within the textile and apparel industry. The purpose of the research is to understand how supply network configuration factors (structure/capabilities) enable or challenge the resilience of local manufacturing supply chains, through a two-stage Delphi study. Based on semi-structured interviews with diverse practitioners within a specific high-cost context and survey responses, consensus is found regarding enablers including flexibility, sustainability, close relationships, and situational awareness, and only cost and competence challenges. Findings confirm complex trade-offs and additionally suggest the importance of developing/building upon sensing capabilities.

Keywords
Supply chain resilience, Supply chain design, Delphi study
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28376 (URN)
Conference
EurOMA-Leuven, Belgium (July 3-5)
Note

Funder: Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad

Project-20221947

Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2023-11-24Bibliographically approved
Harper, S. (2022). Paradoxical tensions impacting small-series production implementation in high-cost contexts: insights from the EU apparel industry. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 42(8), 1200-1228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paradoxical tensions impacting small-series production implementation in high-cost contexts: insights from the EU apparel industry
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1200-1228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

While localized small-series production is a significant opportunity, various tensions challenge implementation in high-cost contexts. This paper explores how managers view and respond to different tensions in small-series production implementation by adopting a paradox-based perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a multiple case study addressing small-series production within EU's apparel industry, as key context to address managerial awareness, and responses to tensions regarding location and supply network configuration decisions. Seven cases were selected for variation in customization and implementation (early/established), ownership, location and company size, to identity commonalities.

Findings

The study highlights performing tensions related to sustainability, and risk, in addition to confirming traditional goal-related tensions predominantly impacting small volume production. With on-demand/custom production, tensions include costs in conflict with process scale, and several process-related tensions (flexibility, expansion/development, risk management). Identified multidimensional responses do not include location or structural decisions, instead focusing on synthesis, through product-operations efficiency, knowledge development and process innovation and supply chain collaboration. Temporal separation is found with customization, including reducing product/process complexity short-term with enhancing process development, which suggests latent learning tensions and limited awareness.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should address the extent to which tensions can be resolved or remain paradoxical, as well as dynamic decision-making and latent tensions.

Originality/value

The paper shows how paradox theory facilitates a deeper understanding of complex network configuration decisions, including reshoring/localization. The findings identify organizing tensions/elements and elaborate upon performing/performing-organizing tensions suggested with small-series production, location decisions and supply chain management.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2022
Keywords
Supply network configuration, Supply chain design, Paradox theory, Customization, Textile and apparel industry
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28368 (URN)10.1108/ijopm-11-2021-0729 (DOI)000822784800001 ()2-s2.0-85133662404 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-12 Created: 2022-08-12 Last updated: 2023-02-07Bibliographically approved
Harper, S. & Pal, R. (2022). Resilience of Small-Series Production Models: Insights From EU Apparel Industry During Covid-19. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Logistics: The Journey to Sustainable Supply Chains. Paper presented at ISL 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience of Small-Series Production Models: Insights From EU Apparel Industry During Covid-19
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Logistics: The Journey to Sustainable Supply Chains, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose of this paper:

While strategies like nearshoring, digitalization and small order sizes are expected to support resilience in the textile and apparel industry, literature suggests complex implications of small-series production in high-cost contexts on risk exposure. The purpose of the paper is to understand the how supply network configuration related to small-series production models influence resilience, in EU’s textile and apparel industry amidst COVID-19.

 

Design/methodology/approach:

A multiple case study is presented, with data collected through semi-structured interviews with seven case companies representing different types of small-series production models. The analysis of risk exposure draws from supply network configuration literature, to identify the implications of small-series production model structures and reconfigurations on resilience.

 

Findings:

Product and operations characteristics are more often resilience enablers, whereas priorities/performance (sustainability, innovation, delivery), and supply chains (relationships, locations) can both enable and impede resilience in the face of both external and internal supply chain risks. These findings thus confirm the benefits of such small-series production models for mitigating, adapting to, and withstanding risks emerging from COVID-19 situation.

 

Value:

The supply network configuration-based framework adopted in the study enabled analysis of the implications of small-series production and its configuration on resilience (and associated risk exposure), which can support future reconfigurations.

 

Research limitations/implications:

Future research can complement this study with quantitative measures of resilience, and comparisons with other industry and location contexts. Additionally, in-depth case studies can address how companies balance positive and negative impacts of small-series supply network configuration on resilience.

 

Practical implications:

Managers can be aware of enabling and challenging effects of small-series production model priorities and performance goals, location and relationships, when configuring or reconfiguring structures in response to risks.

Keywords
Supply chain resilience, Supply network configuration, Small-series production, High-cost contexts
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28387 (URN)
Conference
ISL 2022
Projects
Fashion Big Data Business Model (FBD_BModel)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 761122
Available from: 2022-09-05 Created: 2022-09-05 Last updated: 2022-09-19Bibliographically approved
Harper, S. & Pal, R. (2022). Small-series supply network configuration priorities and challenges in the EU textile and apparel industry. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small-series supply network configuration priorities and challenges in the EU textile and apparel industry
2022 (English)In: Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, ISSN 1361-2026, E-ISSN 1758-7433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

Technology and market pressures are encouraging localized and small-series production in customer-driven industries. The purpose of this paper is to explore and understand the supply chain-, product- and process-design factors for small-series production in EU's textile and apparel industry, to understand configuration decisions, priorities and challenges. 

 Design/methodology/approach 

An interview study was undertaken with ten companies that represent diverse small-series production models and value chain roles. Interview data was analysed to identify supply network configuration characteristics, decision priorities and challenges. 

 Findings

Three small-series production models emerged from the analysis, differing with respect to adoption of process postponement and customization. The findings confirm and extend past research regarding diverse decision priorities and product, process, supply chain structure/relationship configurations. Challenges identified relate to planning (priorities) and implementation (configuration). Whereas competence availability and digital technology challenges are common, several difficulties are linked to production model like tensions related to priorities and small volumes, which are not found with customization. 

 Research limitations/implications 

Future research can make comparisons with other industry and location contexts; adopt dynamic approaches to distinguish between design and reconfiguration processes; and address indicated paradoxical-tensions. 

 Practical implications 

The study findings can provide guidance for companies regarding identification of priorities and management of (planning/implementation) challenges impacting small-series production in T&A. 

 Originality/value 

The paper brings a configuration perspective at the supply chain level to the problem of small-series production implementation, which demands holistic and context-specific understanding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2022
Keywords
Supply network configuration, Supply chain design, Customization, High-cost countries, Supply chain management, MASS CUSTOMIZATION, CHAIN, DESIGN, IMPACT
National Category
Business Administration Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27889 (URN)10.1108/JFMM-07-2021-0173 (DOI)000792562300001 ()2-s2.0-85130187806 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 761122
Available from: 2022-05-19 Created: 2022-05-19 Last updated: 2023-01-04Bibliographically approved
Harper, S. (2022). Supply network configuration for small-series apparel production in high-cost contexts: Opportunities and challenges from selected EU countries. (Doctoral dissertation). Borås: Högskolan i Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supply network configuration for small-series apparel production in high-cost contexts: Opportunities and challenges from selected EU countries
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In high-cost textile and apparel industry contexts, local and small-series production models (demand-driven/on-demand) are increasingly relevant due to various pressures, including global risks, and demands to reduce overproduction for profitability and environmental sustainability. However, understanding how such reconfigurations impact supply chains more broadly, and what are the associated implementation challenges, is required. Thus, the purpose of this thesis is to explore priorities and challenges impacting location decisions and supply network configuration, and related paradoxes, associated with small-series apparel production in high-cost contexts. This is addressed through mixed-methods and qualitative studies detailed in five appended papers, which focus on interrelated decisions, priorities, challenges, and tensions/paradoxes according to practitioners from diverse companies in several EU countries, with a variety of small-series production models and stages of implementation.  

The findings show that different supply network configurations for small-series apparel production share several interrelated design decisions, which are driven by multiple network capability-related priorities (performance goals like quality, delivery speed and reliability, flexibility, environmental sustainability, product/process innovation), and are impacted by similar challenges as manufacturing in high-cost contexts. However, the findings suggest product/process innovation and environmental sustainability are higher priorities, and cost challenges are reduced, with small-series product segments. While several priorities are found to be conflicting when juxtaposed, the findings suggest exposure to goal-related tensions is lessened with high levels of product customization. Although awareness of multiple interwoven tensions related to goals and processes is common among diverse companies in the context (i.e. sensing capabilities), capabilities for tension management and adaptability vary (i.e. seizing and reconfiguring). The lack of other tension types explicitly identified indicates limited awareness. 

The thesis contributes to theory by addressing the interrelated opportunities of customization and localization on the supply chain and network configuration level, through focus on the apparel industry context. In the process, the research highlights the utility of a combined supply network configuration and paradox theory-based perspective to unify and categorize insights from fragmented extant literature, which can be used to address other complex topics in supply chain and operations management. Future research should build upon preliminary insights regarding the different levels of exposure to interwoven tensions, and capabilities for paradoxical sensemaking and management. Such investigations should explicitly seek to identify latent tensions in supply networks; address whether identified and managed tensions remain paradoxical over time; and analyze outcomes of paradoxical sensemaking and management on performance goals (e.g. cost, flexibility, quality, product and process innovation, environmental and social sustainability, and resilience).  

The main contributions to practice are guidance for managers in high-cost textile and apparel-like industry contexts, with analysis of existing and future network configurations for small-series production implementation/scaling, and paradoxical sensemaking. The findings suggest managers should expand upon current levels of awareness to understand latent tensions, like the learning tensions that were revealed within several response strategies. Managers should be aware that local production is often a driver of tensions in high-cost contexts, rather than being included among multidimensional tension management strategies; whereas customization has the potential to reduce exposure to goal-related tensions. To respond to various tensions, managers can leverage/develop internal and external resources focused on both product and operations design. To respond to process tensions impacting customization, enhanced and reduced levels of product and process development can be balanced. 

Abstract [sv]

I högkostnadssammanhang inom textil- och klädindustrin blir modeller för lokal och småserieproduktion (d.v.s. efterfrågestyrda/on-demand) alltmer relevanta på grund av olika påtryckningar, inklusive globala risker, samt kraven på att minska överproduktionen för lönsamhet och miljömässig hållbarhet. Det krävs dock att man förstår hur sådana omkonfigurationer påverkar försörjningskedjorna bredare och vilka de associerade implementeringsutmaningarna är. Syftet med denna avhandling är därför att utforska de prioriteringar och utmaningar som påverkar platsbeslut samt konfigurationen av försörjningsnätverk, samt relaterade paradoxer, som är förknippade med småserieproduktion av kläder i högkostnadssammanhang. Detta har gjorts genom blandade metoder och kvalitativa studier som beskrivs i fem bifogade artiklar och som fokuserar på relaterade beslut, prioriteringar, utmaningar och spänningar/paradoxer enligt utövare i olika företag i flera EU-länder med en mängd olika produktionsmodeller när det gäller småserier samt varierande genomförandestadier.  

Resultaten visar att olika konfigurationer av försörjningsnätverk för småserieproduktion av kläder delar flera designbeslut som är relaterade till varandra och som drivs av flera nätverkskapacitetsrelaterade prioriteringar (prestandamål såsom kvalitet, leveranshastighet och tillförlitlighet, flexibilitet, miljömässig hållbarhet, produkt-/processinnovation) och påverkas av liknande utmaningar som finns i produktion i högkostnadssammanhang. Resultaten tyder dock på att produkt-/processinnovation och miljömässig hållbarhet har högre prioritet, samt att kostnadsutmaningarna minskar, med produktsegment i småserier. Trots att flera prioriteringar visar sig vara motstridiga när de ställs mot varandra, tyder resultaten på att exponeringen för målrelaterade spänningar minskar i samband med höga nivåer av produktanpassning. Även om medvetenhet om flera sammanvävda spänningar relaterade till mål och processer är vanligt bland olika företag i sammanhanget (d.v.s. avkänningsförmåga), varierar kapaciteten för spänningshantering och anpassningsförmåga (d.v.s. att ingripa och omkonfigurera). Att det finns en brist på att andra spänningstyper uttryckligen identifieras indikerar begränsad medvetenhet. 

Avhandlingen bidrar till teoriunderlaget genom att ta upp de sammanhängande möjligheterna som gäller för kundanpassning och lokalisering inom försörjningskedjan och nätverkskonfiI högkostnadssammanhang inom textil- och klädindustrin blir modeller för lokal och småserieproduktion (d.v.s. efterfrågestyrda/on-demand) alltmer relevanta på grund av olika påtryckningar, inklusive globala risker, samt kraven på att minska överproduktionen för lönsamhet och miljömässig hållbarhet. Det krävs dock att man förstår hur sådana omkonfigurationer påverkar försörjningskedjorna bredare och vilka de associerade implementeringsutmaningarna är. Syftet med denna avhandling är därför att utforska de prioriteringar och utmaningar som påverkar platsbeslut samt konfigurationen av försörjningsnätverk, samt relaterade paradoxer, som är förknippade med småserieproduktion av kläder i högkostnadssammanhang. Detta har gjorts genom blandade metoder och kvalitativa studier som beskrivs i fem bifogade artiklar och som fokuserar på relaterade beslut, prioriteringar, utmaningar och spänningar/paradoxer enligt utövare i olika företag i flera EU-länder med en mängd olika produktionsmodeller när det gäller småserier samt varierande genomförandestadier.  

Resultaten visar att olika konfigurationer av försörjningsnätverk för småserieproduktion av kläder delar flera designbeslut som är relaterade till varandra och som drivs av flera nätverkskapacitetsrelaterade prioriteringar (prestandamål såsom kvalitet, leveranshastighet och tillförlitlighet, flexibilitet, miljömässig hållbarhet, produkt-/processinnovation) och påverkas av liknande utmaningar som finns i produktion i högkostnadssammanhang. Resultaten tyder dock på att produkt-/processinnovation och miljömässig hållbarhet har högre prioritet, samt att kostnadsutmaningarna minskar, med produktsegment i småserier. Trots att flera prioriteringar visar sig vara motstridiga när de ställs mot varandra, tyder resultaten på att exponeringen för målrelaterade spänningar minskar i samband med höga nivåer av produktanpassning. Även om medvetenhet om flera sammanvävda spänningar relaterade till mål och processer är vanligt bland olika företag i sammanhanget (d.v.s. avkänningsförmåga), varierar kapaciteten för spänningshantering och anpassningsförmåga (d.v.s. att ingripa och omkonfigurera). Att det finns en brist på att andra spänningstyper uttryckligen identifieras indikerar begränsad medvetenhet. 

Avhandlingen bidrar till teoriunderlaget genom att ta upp de sammanhängande möjligheterna som gäller för kundanpassning och lokalisering inom försörjningskedjan och nätverkskonfiguration genom fokus på klädbranschens kontext. I processen belyser forskningen användbarheten av en kombinerad konfiguration av försörjningsnätverk och ett paradoxteoribaserat perspektiv för att förena och kategorisera insikter från den fragmenterade befintliga litteratur som kan användas för att ta upp andra komplexa ämnen inom försörjningskedjan och driftledning. Framtida forskning bör bygga på preliminära insikter om de olika nivåerna av exponering för sammanvävda spänningar samt kapaciteten för paradoxal känsla och ledning. Sådana undersökningar bör särskilt försöka identifiera latenta spänningar i försörjningsnätverken och ta upp huruvida identifierade och hanterade spänningar förblir paradoxala över tid samt analysera resultat av paradoxalt förnuftsskapande och förvaltning av prestationsmål (t.ex. kostnad, flexibilitet, kvalitet, produkt- och processinnovation, miljömässig och social hållbarhet och motståndskraft).  

De huvudsakliga bidragen till praktiken är vägledning för chefer i högkostnadstextil- och klädliknande industrikontexter, med analys av befintliga och framtida nätverkskonfigurationer för implementering/skalning av småserier, samt paradoxalt meningsskapande. Resultaten tyder på att chefer bör expandera nuvarande nivåer av medvetenhet för att förstå latenta spänningar, såsom de inlärningsspänningar som avslöjades inom flera responsstrategier. Chefer bör vara medvetna om att lokalproduktion ofta är en drivkraft gällande spänningar i högkostnadssammanhang, snarare än något som ingår i flerdimensionella spänningshanteringsstrategier. Däremot har kundanpassning potentialen för att kunna minska exponeringen för målrelaterade spänningar. För att reagera mot olika spänningar kan chefer utnyttja/utveckla interna och externa resurser fokuserade på både produkt- och driftdesign. Och för att reagera mot spänningar i processer som påverkar kundanpassning kan förbättrade och minskade nivåer av produkt- och processutveckling balanseras. guration genom fokus på klädbranschens kontext. I processen belyser forskningen användbarheten av en kombinerad konfiguration av försörjningsnätverk och ett paradoxteoribaserat perspektiv för att förena och kategorisera insikter från den fragmenterade befintliga litteratur som kan användas för att ta upp andra komplexa ämnen inom försörjningskedjan och driftledning. Framtida forskning bör bygga på preliminära insikter om de olika nivåerna av exponering för sammanvävda spänningar samt kapaciteten för paradoxal känsla och ledning. Sådana undersökningar bör särskilt försöka identifiera latenta spänningar i försörjningsnätverken och ta upp huruvida identifierade och hanterade spänningar förblir paradoxala över tid samt analysera resultat av paradoxalt förnuftsskapande och förvaltning av prestationsmål (t.ex. kostnad, flexibilitet, kvalitet, produkt- och processinnovation, miljömässig och social hållbarhet och motståndskraft).  

De huvudsakliga bidragen till praktiken är vägledning för chefer i högkostnadstextil- och klädliknande industrikontexter, med analys av befintliga och framtida nätverkskonfigurationer för implementering/skalning av småserier, samt paradoxalt meningsskapande. Resultaten tyder på att chefer bör expandera nuvarande nivåer av medvetenhet för att förstå latenta spänningar, såsom de inlärningsspänningar som avslöjades inom flera responsstrategier. Chefer bör vara medvetna om att lokalproduktion ofta är en drivkraft gällande spänningar i högkostnadssammanhang, snarare än något som ingår i flerdimensionella spänningshanteringsstrategier. Däremot har kundanpassning potentialen för att kunna minska exponeringen för målrelaterade spänningar. För att reagera mot olika spänningar kan chefer utnyttja/utveckla interna och externa resurser fokuserade på både produkt- och driftdesign. Och för att reagera mot spänningar i processer som påverkar kundanpassning kan förbättrade och minskade nivåer av produkt- och processutveckling balanseras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2022
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 131
Keywords
high-cost contexts, customization, supply network configuration, priorities, challenges, paradox theory, högkostnadssammanhang, kundanpassning, konfiguration av försörjningsnätverk, prioriteringar, utmaningar, paradoxteori
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28007 (URN)978-91-89271-72-2 (ISBN)978-91-89271-73-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-08-25, Vestindien B, Skaraborgsvägen 3, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-08-31 Created: 2022-06-16 Last updated: 2022-08-24Bibliographically approved
Harper, S. (2021). Implementation of small series supply network configuration for apparel industry in high-cost contexts: A paradox-based approach. In: EurOMA 2021 Proceedings: . Paper presented at EurOMA Conference, 28th EurOMA Conference, Online, 5-7, July 2021.. Online-Berlin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of small series supply network configuration for apparel industry in high-cost contexts: A paradox-based approach
2021 (English)In: EurOMA 2021 Proceedings, Online-Berlin, 2021Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While localized small series production is a key opportunity in the textile and apparel industry, trade-offs can challenge implementation in the EU. To understand such conflicting demands, the paper presents a multiple case study, which adopts a holistic paradox-based approach, supplemented by supply network configuration. The study is based on interviews with companies representing four cases that differ on ownership and customization. The findings show performing and organizing paradoxes, driven by diverse stakeholder demands, limited resources, sustainability goals, and small volume production models, and strategic responses like reduced product complexity, temporal separation for conflicting processes, and collaborative supply chain relationships.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Online-Berlin: , 2021
Keywords
Supply network configuration, Reconfiguration, Textile and apparel industry
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26514 (URN)
Conference
EurOMA Conference, 28th EurOMA Conference, Online, 5-7, July 2021.
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 761122
Available from: 2021-09-22 Created: 2021-09-22 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
Kumar, V., Harper, S. & Pal, R. (2020). A data-driven approach to incorporate multi-level input in Interpretive Structural Modelling with a case example of small-series supply chain network configuration. In: : . Paper presented at 21st International Working Seminar on Production Economics, Innsbruck, February 24-28, 2020..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A data-driven approach to incorporate multi-level input in Interpretive Structural Modelling with a case example of small-series supply chain network configuration
2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) is widely employed in production research to study the complex interaction among various factors or elements which define a complex production or supply chain problem. It transforms the poorly articulated mental model of the problem into a visible well-defined relational model using an element-relationship-matrix. Building ISM involves primarily pairwise comparison of factors in rotation i.e. each factor is compared with all remaining factors as input. In general, these relations among the compared pairs are defined in binary levels i.e. the relations are defined in terms of “yes/no”; hence, the interactions are treated equally for all levels of interaction magnitude. Consequently, the interpretation of the results does not capture the intensity of interrelation, which limits the exploitation of the relational model for concrete production/supply chain decision-making. This paper introduces a data-driven algorithm to convert a multi-level pairwise comparison into bi-level groups i.e. groups with weak and strong relations, to incorporate and account for non-binary relations. The bi-level groups are created based on a threshold point in multi-level input that simultaneously maximizes the inter-group variance whereas minimizes the intra-group variance. The application of the proposed approach is demonstrated in context to small-series textile/apparel supply network configuration, in order to show its practical significance in strategic decision-making.

Keywords
Interpretive Structural Modelling, Data-driven Threshold, Supply Chain Network Configuration
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-22955 (URN)
Conference
21st International Working Seminar on Production Economics, Innsbruck, February 24-28, 2020.
Available from: 2020-03-04 Created: 2020-03-04 Last updated: 2020-03-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6727-7168

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