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Biswas, T., Yu, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2022). Author Correction: Effects of ink characteristics and piezo-electric inkjetting parameters on lysozyme activity. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article ID 21758.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Author Correction: Effects of ink characteristics and piezo-electric inkjetting parameters on lysozyme activity
2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 21758Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29298 (URN)10.1038/s41598-022-25674-5 (DOI)000934547900031 ()2-s2.0-85144141584 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54723-9, published online 03 December 2019

Available from: 2023-01-17 Created: 2023-01-17 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Biswas, T., Yu, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2022). Digital inkjet printing of antimicrobial lysozyme on pretreated polyester fabric. In: : . Paper presented at 10th INTERNATIONAL TEXTILE, CLOTHING & DESIGN CONFERENCE, October 2nd to 5th 2022, DUBROVNIK, CROATIA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital inkjet printing of antimicrobial lysozyme on pretreated polyester fabric
2022 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lysozyme was inkjet printed on two different polyester fabrics considering several challenges of printing enzymes on synthetic fabric surfaces. Wettability of both the fabrics were improved by alkaline pre-treatment resulting reduction in water contact angle to 60±2 from 95°±3 and to 80°±2 from 115°±2 for thinner and coarser fabric respectively. Activity of lysozyme in the prepared ink was 9240±34 units/ml and reduced to 5946±23 units/ml as of collected after jetting process (before printing on fabric). The formulated ink was effectively inkjet printed on alkali treated polyester fabric for antimicrobial applications. Retention of higher activity of the printed fabric requires further studies on enzyme-fibre binding mechanisms and understanding protein orientation on fabric surface after printing

Keywords
inkjet, lysozyme, antimicrobial, digital printing
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Biocatalysis and Enzyme Technology Other Medical Biotechnology Medical Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28930 (URN)
Conference
10th INTERNATIONAL TEXTILE, CLOTHING & DESIGN CONFERENCE, October 2nd to 5th 2022, DUBROVNIK, CROATIA
Available from: 2022-11-17 Created: 2022-11-17 Last updated: 2022-11-17Bibliographically approved
Biswas, T. (2022). Enzyme Printed Fabrics: Bio‐functionalisation of Synthetic Textiles by Digital Inkjet Printing. (Doctoral dissertation). Borås: Högskolan i Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enzyme Printed Fabrics: Bio‐functionalisation of Synthetic Textiles by Digital Inkjet Printing
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores the possibilities of printing enzymes using resource-efficient technologies to promote the binding of other proteins and biomaterials on synthetic textiles. This strategy can be used to develop advanced textiles for applications, for example, in antimicrobial, drug delivery and biosensing. Digital inkjet printing was combined with enzyme technology to ensure minimum use of water, chemicals and energy in textile manufacturing processes.  

Inks containing two enzymes, lysozyme and tyrosinase, were formulated by adjusting several rheological and ionic properties. The activity of these enzymes was optimised while being printed through two different industrial grade piezoelectric printheads. The theoretical printability of the prepared inks was calculated. The effect of printhead temperature and number of printing passes on the activity was evaluated. Polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) and polyamide-6,6 were pre-treated through several techniques to understand their effect on enzyme adhesion, binding and activity retention. Tyrosinase was used to bind lysozyme on plasma activated polyamide-6,6 surface. The effects of printing these two enzymes in various sequences, i.e. tyrosinase before lysozyme and vice-versa on binding stability and activity, were studied. Influence of the printing process on enzyme kinetics was evaluated. Ability to store and reuse printed fabrics was also studied.  

Lysozyme and tyrosinase containing inks showed activity retention of 85% and 60%, respectively. Activity of lysozyme containing ink was optimum at 10–15 mPa.s when glycerol was used as a viscosity modifier. However, the optimum viscosity for tyrosinase containing ink was at 6–9 mPa.s, and carboxymethyl cellulose was found to be the most favourable modifier. For both inks, a surfactant amount below the critical micelle concentration was considered to be the most effective for printing. Among the studied fabric pre-treatment methods (alkaline, cutinase and plasma), it was found that the activity and stability of the enzyme were dependent on the nature of the pretreatment processes, which can be beneficial for different application areas, e.g. drug release and bio-sensing. Upon printing both inks on a plasma treated polyamide-6,6, tyrosinase was able to catalyse lysozyme protein to bind it on fabric. A maximum of 68% lytic activity was retained by lysozyme when it was printed after tyrosinase. This fabric showed inhibition of bacterial growth and retained almost half of its initial activity when cold stored for a month. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2022
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 135
Keywords
Digital printing, inkjet, enzyme, printhead, rheology, immobilisation, piezoelectric, drop-on-demand, resource-efficient textiles, biological ink, lysozyme, tyrosinase, polyphenol oxidase, polyethylene terephthalate, polyester, polyamide-6, 6, nylon, surface modification, plasma, antimicrobial, antibacterial
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29001 (URN)978-91-89271-87-6 (ISBN)978-91-89271-88-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-02-28, M404, Allégatan 1, Borås, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2023-03-06Bibliographically approved
Biswas, T., Yu, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2022). Inkjet printing of enzymes on synthetic fabrics. In: : . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Fiber & Polymer Biotechnology, 13th to 15th November 2022, Graz, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inkjet printing of enzymes on synthetic fabrics
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Enzymes can be immobilized on textiles to impart anti-microbial properties in a more environment-friendly manner compared to conventional biocide-based solutions. Such application requires ensuring precise, flexible and contamination-free immobilization methods that can be offered by digital printing compared to coating or screen-printing techniques. Drop-on-demand inkjet printing is a resource-efficient technology that can ensure these requirements. The use of polyester and polyamide-based fabrics is rising for applications ranging from apparel and home furnishing to hygiene and medical textiles. These fibers offer superior chemical, physical, and mechanical properties due to their inert nature but challenge the printing process due to hydrophobicity and lack of functional groups. Lysozyme and tyrosinase are two enzymes showing great potential for grafting on synthetic fabrics paving the way to use them for inkjet printing as well.

Challenges for inkjet printing of enzymes on synthetic fabric surfaces come in multiple forms i.e. ink recipe formation, printer mechanics and fabric surface characteristics. The ink must maintain a suitable viscosity and surface tension for effective drop ejection and a feasible ionic nature for enzyme activity. Then, the enzyme must be able to sustain the temperature and shear stress generated inside an inkjet printhead. Finally, influential fabric characteristics include surface structure, pore size distribution, evaporation rate and binding mechanism. By considering these parameters, lysozyme and tyrosinase were successfully printed on variously modified synthetic fabrics using a combination of sustainable technologies.

National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Biocatalysis and Enzyme Technology Medical Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28931 (URN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Fiber & Polymer Biotechnology, 13th to 15th November 2022, Graz, Austria
Available from: 2022-11-17 Created: 2022-11-17 Last updated: 2022-11-24Bibliographically approved
Biswas, T., Yu, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2022). Piezoelectric inkjet printing of tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) enzyme on atmospheric plasma treated polyamide fabric. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article ID 6828.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Piezoelectric inkjet printing of tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) enzyme on atmospheric plasma treated polyamide fabric
2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 6828Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tyrosinase enzyme was digitally printed on plasma pretreated polyamide-6,6 fabric using several sustainable technologies. Ink containing carboxymethyl cellulose was found to be the most suitable viscosity modifier for this enzyme. Before and after being deposited on the fabric surface, the printed inks retained enzyme activity of 69% and 60%, respectively, compared to activity prior printing process. A good number of the printed enzyme was found to be strongly adsorbed on the fabric surface even after several rinsing cycles due to surface activation by plasma treatment. Rinsed out fabrics retained a maximum activity of 34% resulting from the well-adsorbed enzymes. The activity of tyrosinase on printed fabrics was more stable than ink solution for at least 60 days. Effects of pH, temperature and enzyme kinetics on ink solution and printed fabrics were assessed. Tyrosinase printed synthetic fabrics can be utilized for a range of applications from biosensing and wastewater treatment to cultural heritage works.

Keywords
covalent immobilization, biosensor, adsorption
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27875 (URN)10.1038/s41598-022-10852-2 (DOI)000787775900070 ()2-s2.0-85128933473 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-16 Created: 2022-05-16 Last updated: 2023-01-11Bibliographically approved
Biswas, T., Yu, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2022). Sequential Inkjet Printing of Lysozyme and Tyrosinase on Polyamide Fabric: Sustainable Enzyme Binding on Textile Surface. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 9(22), Article ID 2200723.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sequential Inkjet Printing of Lysozyme and Tyrosinase on Polyamide Fabric: Sustainable Enzyme Binding on Textile Surface
2022 (English)In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 9, no 22, article id 2200723Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ink containing tyrosinase catalyzes the tyrosine residues on lysozyme protein to bind it on a plasma-treated polyamide-6,6 (PA) fabric. Inkjet printing enables controlled and sequential deposition of two enzymes on PA which is necessary for proper binding. The effect of different printing sequences on crosslinking stability and enzymatic activity is presented. The lysozyme bound on the fabric shows satisfactory antimicrobial activity. The printed fabric retains about 68% of the ink activity when tyrosinase is printed before lysozyme. Further, this fabric retains about 24% of the initial activity up to four reuses. The fabric shows acceptable inhibition of bacterial growth and retains almost half of its initial activity when cold stored for a month. This work shows the potential of protein binding on textile surface using various means of sustainable technologies, namely enzyme, inkjet, and plasma. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
National Category
Materials Chemistry Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28241 (URN)10.1002/admi.202200723 (DOI)000819562000001 ()2-s2.0-85133156944 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was financially supported by the research school at the University of Borås. The authors are thankful for the support from TEKO (Sveriges Textil- och Modeföretag) and Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad.

Available from: 2022-07-08 Created: 2022-07-08 Last updated: 2023-02-07Bibliographically approved
Biswas, T., Yu, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2021). Effective Pretreatment Routes of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabric for Digital Inkjet Printing of Enzyme. Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effective Pretreatment Routes of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabric for Digital Inkjet Printing of Enzyme
2021 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Enzymes immobilized on synthetic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile surface by resource‐efficient inkjet printing technology can promote developments for various novel applications. Synthetic fabrics often require adequate pretreatments to facilitate such printing process. This work discusses PET–woven fabric pretreatment routes to improve wettability by alkaline, enzymatic, and plasma processes for effective printing of lysozyme using an industrial piezoelectric printhead. Results indicate that all pretreated samples contain a similar amount of enzymes upon printing. Plasma treated fabrics show relatively more hydrophilic surface characteristics, better protein binding stability, and lower retained activity. Alkali and cutinase‐treated samples possess relatively higher activity due to the greater amount of enzyme desorption to substrate solution. Depending on respective enzyme‐binding stability, a combination of a well-pretreated surface and inkjet as preferential placement technology, the approach of this study can be used as a facile enzyme immobilization method for suitable applications, for example, controlled‐release and bio‐sensing.

Keywords
biomaterials inkjet printing, lysozyme, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), pretreatment routes
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Other Biological Topics Polymer Chemistry Physical Chemistry
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-24895 (URN)10.1002/admi.202001882 (DOI)000611092100001 ()2-s2.0-85099740075 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correction to article published 23 November 2021: https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.202101935

Available from: 2021-01-28 Created: 2021-01-28 Last updated: 2023-01-11Bibliographically approved
Biswas, T., Yu, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2019). Effects of ink characteristics and piezo-electric inkjetting parameters on lysozyme activity. Scientific Reports, 9(18252)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of ink characteristics and piezo-electric inkjetting parameters on lysozyme activity
2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 18252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inkjet printing of enzymes can facilitate many novel applications where a small amount of materials need to be deposited in a precise and flexible manner. However, maintaining the satisfactory activity of inkjet printed enzyme is a challenging task due to the requirements of ink rheology and printhead parameters. Thus to find optimum inkjetting conditions we studied the effects of several ink formulation and jetting parameters on lysozyme activity using a piezoelectric printhead. Within linear activity range of protein concentrations ink containing 50 µg/mL lysozyme showed a satisfactory activity retention of 85%. An acceptable activity of jetted ink was found at pH 6.2 and ionic strength of 0.06 molar. Glycerol was found to be an effective viscosity modifier (10–15 mPa.s), humectant and protein structure stabilizer for the prepared ink. A non-ionic surfactant when used just below critical micelle concentration was found to be favourable for the jetted inks. An increase in activity retention was observed for inks jetted after 24 hours of room temperature incubation. However, no additional activity was seen for inkjetting above the room temperature. Findings of this study would be useful for formulating other protein-based inks and setting their inkjet printing parameters without highly compromising the functionality.

Keywords
biological ink, lysozyme, inkjet printing, piezoelectric
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-22771 (URN)10.1038/s41598-019-54723-9 (DOI)000501310300001 ()2-s2.0-85075948827 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2023-01-11Bibliographically approved
Biswas, T., Yu, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2019). Enzyme immobilization on textiles by inkjet printing for advanced applications. In: : . Paper presented at Association of Universities of Textiles (AUTEX), 11th to 15th June 2019, Ghent, Belgium.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enzyme immobilization on textiles by inkjet printing for advanced applications
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Immobilization of enzymes on textiles can impart a range of advanced applications e.g. anti-microbial, controlled release, drug delivery and bio-sensing (Wehrschütz-Sigl et al., 2010). Such applications enable minimal consumption, recovery, and reusability of these valuable bio-materials compared to their conventional textile applications in surface cleaning and finishing (Araujo et al., 2008). Methods used for immobilization can play important roles to ensure precise, flexible and contamination free application. Compared to many of the conventional methods of textile immobilization such as coating and screen-printing, digital inkjet technology offers many benefits for such advanced applications (Kan and Yuen, 2012). Among various inkjet technologies, drop-on-demand piezoelectric printing is a promising resource-efficient technology for enzyme immobilization. 

 

The enzymes should retain high activity after the immobilization process. Various factors involved during inkjet printing (Saunders and Derby, 2014) and fabric characteristics (Mohamed et al., 2008) can influence this enzymatic activity. Factors concerning the inkjet procedure include rheology and ionic nature of ink along with the shear force and waveform generated inside a piezoelectric printhead (Magdassi, 2010). Factors dependent upon fabric characteristics include surface structure, pore size distribution, and binding mechanism (Nierstrasz and Warmoeskerken, 2003). In this work, we have studied the effects of inkjet procedures on enzymatic activity. Lysozyme being a stable and well-studied enzyme was chosen for our experiments. A Xennia Carnelian printer with a Dimatix QS10 industrial printhead was used for inkjetting. Lytic activity of lysozyme was studied by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer against decrease of Micrococcus lysodeikticus cell concentration at 450 nm. Results showed ca. 10-15% activity reduction of the jetted lysozyme ink. As all the ink and printer parameters were optimized, the probable reason for such reduction could be the effect of shear forces inside the printhead on three-dimensional conformation of lysozyme. In conclusion, our formulated lysozyme ink showed potential for printing textiles with probable activity reduction that require further investigation. 

Keywords
enzyme, inkjet, printing, lysozyme, textile
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Biocatalysis and Enzyme Technology Medical Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28929 (URN)
Conference
Association of Universities of Textiles (AUTEX), 11th to 15th June 2019, Ghent, Belgium
Available from: 2022-11-17 Created: 2022-11-17 Last updated: 2022-11-24Bibliographically approved
Zhou, Y., Yu, J., Biswas, T., Tang, R.-C. & Nierstrasz, V. (2019). Inkjet Printing of Curcumin-Based Ink for Coloration and Bioactivation of Polyamide, Silk, and Wool Fabrics. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 7(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inkjet Printing of Curcumin-Based Ink for Coloration and Bioactivation of Polyamide, Silk, and Wool Fabrics
Show others...
2019 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity; curcumin; durability; inkjet printing; tannin acid
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15761 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b04650 (DOI)000456631800027 ()2-s2.0-85060515908 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-17 Created: 2019-02-17 Last updated: 2022-05-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2412-9004

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