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Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Wikandari, R., Tanugraha, D. R., Yastanto, A. J., Manikharda, M., Gmoser, R. & Teixeira, J. A. (2023). Development of Meat Substitutes from Filamentous Fungi Cultivated on Residual Water of Tempeh Factories. Molecules, 28(3), 997
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Meat Substitutes from Filamentous Fungi Cultivated on Residual Water of Tempeh Factories
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2023 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 997-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, there has been an increased motivation to reduce meat consumption globally due to environmental and health concerns, which has driven the development of meat substitutes. Filamentous fungal biomass, commonly known as mycoprotein, is a potential meat substitute since it is nutritious and has filaments to mimic meat fibrils. The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of a cheap substrate derived from the food industry, i.e., residual water in a tempeh factory, for mycoprotein production. The type of residual water, nutrient supplementation, optimum conditions for biomass production, and characteristics of the mycoprotein were determined. The results showed that the residual water from the first boiling with yeast extract addition gave the highest mycoprotein content. The optimum growth condition was a pH of 4.5 and agitation of 125 rpm, and it resulted in 7.76 g/L biomass. The mycoprotein contains 19.44% (w/w) protein with a high crude fiber content of 8.51% (w/w) and a low fat content of 1.56% (w/w). In addition, the amino acid and fatty acid contents are dominated by glutamic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with an umami taste and are considered healthier foods. The current work reveals that the residual boiling water from the tempeh factory can be used to produce high-quality mycoprotein.

Keywords
mycoprotein, residual water, tempeh factory, meat substitute
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29510 (URN)10.3390/molecules28030997 (DOI)000929673900001 ()PMC9922012 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147894742 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-06 Created: 2023-03-06 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Gmoser, R. (2021). Circular bioeconomy through valorisation of agro-industrial residues by the edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia. (Doctoral dissertation). Borås: Högskolan i Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circular bioeconomy through valorisation of agro-industrial residues by the edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Prevention of dramatic climate change and ensuring food and nutrition security for subsequent generations necessitates the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and efficient use of the world’s resources, including efficient waste disposal. The agro-industrial sector generates a large amount of organic waste, that is currently underexploited owing to poor waste management practices. The circular bioeconomy model is expected to play an important role in the transition towards a sustainable future, and a group of microorganisms known as fungi can be part of the solution, owing to their ability to convert organic waste into useful products, including both materials and energy. These processes hold great potential to change waste materials into resources, leading to societal and environmental benefits. The versatility of various fungi, including their ability to grow in both submerged and solid states, enables the valorisation of liquid and solid streams such as ethanol plant residues ‘thin stillage’ and surplus bread. However, fungal strains need to produce marketable products and exhibit good growth characteristics to be considered suitable for industrial applications. An interesting candidate is the edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia. This fast-growing fungus is able to grow on a wide array of substrates, in both liquid and solid states, and produce industrially relevant products, including its own nutrient rich fungal biomass and carotenoid pigments. 

Submerged fermentation by N. intermedia in semi-synthetic medium showed that the formation of carotenoids can be enhanced by modulating various factors such as light, low pH, high aeration, and the addition of Mg2+ and Mn2+. When cultivated in thin stillage, 6.3 g/L ethanol was produced, along with protein-rich fungal biomass with potential application as feed. However, an additional step was needed to promote pigment production in the fungal biomass. 

Inspired by the traditional use of N. intermedia for food production by solid-state cultivation, the fungal biomass obtained from cultivation in thin stillage was used as inoculum in a subsequent solid-state fermentation step on surplus bread. The fungal product obtained contained up to 33% proteins and 1.2 mg carotenoids/g total material dry weight. By further combining bread as substrate with brewer’s spent grain, a nutrient-rich fungal-fermented product with an attractive texture was successfully produced. The solid-state cultivation resulted in an improved ratio of essential amino acids, and an increase in dietary fibre, minerals, and vitamins, that added further value to the product. To scale up the process, a novel plug-flow bioreactor was developed and successfully operated semi-continuously, without the addition of an external inoculum. Furthermore, a techno-economic feasibility study of on-site solid-state fermentation in small-scale bakeries revealed that the implementation of this process to sustainably use surplus bread at bakery level is economically feasible. 

These studies lay the foundation for the development of N. intermedia as a tool to convert waste material into useful products, contributing to a fossil fuel-free future with positive impacts on the economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2021
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 122
Keywords
Neurospora intermedia, mycoprotein, carotenoids, feed, solid-state fermentation, circular bioeconomy
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-25692 (URN)978-91-89271-35-7 (ISBN)978-91-89271-36-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-09-10, C203, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-08-16 Created: 2021-06-29 Last updated: 2021-08-16Bibliographically approved
Gmoser, R., Lennartsson, P. R. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2021). From surplus bread to burger using filamentous fungi at bakeries: Techno-economical evaluation. Cleaner Environmental Systems, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From surplus bread to burger using filamentous fungi at bakeries: Techno-economical evaluation
2021 (English)In: Cleaner Environmental Systems, ISSN 2666-7894, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel approach of utilizing unsold bread at bakeries as a substrate for the fermentative production of a fungal food product have been developed. Techno-economic feasibility of implementing on-site solid-state fermentation in small-scale bakeries in Sweden to recover 10 kg/day surplus bread using the edible fungus Neurospora intermedia was investigated. Different inoculation to substrate ratios were compared, where 24% of fermented solids to inoculate the next batch presented the best fermentation-benefit ratio. Total capital cost was at its maximum €12,600 that can process 70 tons bread (10 kg/day) in its 20-years lifetime to produce 63 tons of product. Operational costs were dominated by labour cost (53%). Outcomes indicate that the process implementation is economically feasible with an annual net profit of €62,000, rate of return on investment of 18.5%, with a payback-period of 4 years at a discount rate of 7%. According to sensitivity analysis, product-selling price and process bread capacity were critical to the process's economics. Increasing the capacity to 100 kg/day resulted in a substantial increase in net profit value of €5,700,000 compared to the base case scenario. Implementation of this process cast insights on techno-economic performance of a sustainable treatment for surplus bread at bakery-level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Techno-economic analysis, Edible filamentous fungi, Solid-state fermentation, Value-added products, Waste management, Resource recovery
National Category
Food Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-25501 (URN)10.1016/j.cesys.2021.100020 (DOI)000828614800018 ()2-s2.0-85114673345 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 20201656
Available from: 2021-06-08 Created: 2021-06-08 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Wang, R., Gmoser, R., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Lennartsson, P. R. (2021). Solid-state fermentation of stale bread by an edible fungus in a semi-continuous plug-flow bioreactor. Biochemical engineering journal, 169, Article ID 107959.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid-state fermentation of stale bread by an edible fungus in a semi-continuous plug-flow bioreactor
2021 (English)In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 169, article id 107959Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
solid-state fermentation, filamentous fungi, bread
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-25171 (URN)10.1016/j.bej.2021.107959 (DOI)000632461600003 ()2-s2.0-85101980254 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Ways2Taste
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 20201656
Available from: 2021-03-15 Created: 2021-03-15 Last updated: 2021-08-16Bibliographically approved
Brancoli, P., Gmoser, R., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Bolton, K. (2021). The use of life cycle assessment in the support of the development of fungal food products from surplus bread. Fermentation, 7(3), Article ID 173.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of life cycle assessment in the support of the development of fungal food products from surplus bread
2021 (English)In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of food waste as feedstock in the manufacture of high-value products is a promising avenue to contribute to circular economy. Considering that the majority of environmental impacts of products are determined in the early phases of product development, it is crucial to integrate life cycle assessment during these phases. This study integrates environmental considerations in the development of solid-state fermentation based on the cultivation of N. intermedia for the production of a fungal food product using surplus bread as a substrate. The product can be sold as a ready-to-eat meal to reduce waste while generating additional income. Four inoculation scenarios were proposed, based on the use of bread, molasses, and glucose as substrate, and one scenario based on backslopping. The environmental performance was assessed, and the quality of the fungal product was evaluated in terms of morphology and protein content. The protein content of the fungal food product was similar in all scenarios, varying from 25% to 29%. The scenario based on backslopping showed the lowest environmental impacts while maintaining high protein content. The results show that the inoculum production and the solid-state fermentation are the two environmental hotspots and should be in focus when optimizing the process. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Bread, Life cycle assessment, Neurospora intermedia, Process development
National Category
Food Science
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26473 (URN)10.3390/fermentation7030173 (DOI)000699659800001 ()2-s2.0-85114675599 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Available from: 2021-09-20 Created: 2021-09-20 Last updated: 2021-11-10
Gmoser, R., Fristedt, R., Larsson, K., Undeland, I., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Lennartsson, P. R. (2020). From stale bread and brewers spent grain to a new food source using edible filamentous fungi. Bioengineered, 11(1), 582-598
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From stale bread and brewers spent grain to a new food source using edible filamentous fungi
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2020 (English)In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 582-598Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By-products from the food sector with a high load of organic matter present both a waste-handling problem related to expenses and to the environment, yet also an opportunity. This study aims to increase the value of stale bread and brewers spent grain (BSG) by re-introducing these residues to the food production chain by converting them to new protein-enriched products using the edible filamentous fungi Neurospora intermedia and Rhizopusoryzae. After 6 days of solid state fermentation (at 35°C, with a95% relative humidity and moisture content of 40% in the substrate) on stale bread, a nutrient-rich fungal-fermented product was produced. The total protein content, as analyzed by total amino acids, increased from 16.5% in stale sourdough bread to 21.1% (on dry weight basis) in the final product with an improved relative ratio of essential amino acids. An increase in dietary fiber, minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn) and vitamin E, as well as an addition of vitamin D2 (0.89 µg/g dry weight sample) was obtained compared with untreated stale bread. Furthermore, addition of BSG to the sourdough bread with the aim to improve textural changes after fermentation showed promising outcomes. Cultivation of N. intermedia or R. oryzae on stale sourdough bread mixed with 6.5% or 11.8% BSG, respectively, resulted in fungal-fermented products with similar textural properties to a commercial soybean burger. Bioconversion of stale bread and BSG by fungal solid state fermentation to produce a nutrient-enriched food product was confirmed to be a successful way to minimize food waste and protein shortage. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Inc., 2020
Keywords
Neurospora intermedia, stale bread, brewers spent grain, edible filamentous fungi, solid state fermentation
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-23349 (URN)10.1080/21655979.2020.1768694 (DOI)000619926100001 ()2-s2.0-85085313004 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-06-23 Created: 2020-06-23 Last updated: 2021-10-21Bibliographically approved
Hellwig, C., Gmoser, R., Lundin, M., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Rousta, K. (2020). Fungi Burger from Stale Bread? A Case Study on Perceptions of a Novel Protein-Rich Food Product Made from an Edible Fungus. Foods, 9(8), Article ID 1112.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fungi Burger from Stale Bread? A Case Study on Perceptions of a Novel Protein-Rich Food Product Made from an Edible Fungus
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2020 (English)In: Foods, ISSN ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 1112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study aims to assess how a novel fungi product made from the filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, cultivated on bread residuals, is perceived using questionnaires. Participants were asked to rate characteristic attributes of a fungi burger patty and state their preference when comparing it to Quorn and hamburger patties. The data were analyzed to assess whether gender or age was statistically associated with preference profiles. Neither age nor gender was associated with the preference profiles regarding the comparison of burger patties. Except for age and bitterness, age and gender were also not associated with the preference profiles regarding the sensory characteristics of the fungi burger patty. Most of the participants liked the characteristics of the fungi burger patty. The results indicate that fungi products from waste can become accepted products when information dissemination targets environmental benefits. Moreover, to be commercially accepted, the chewiness and bitterness of the product should be improved. Other improvements should target the overall taste in order to cater to people who prefer meat-based protein sources.

Keywords
food perceptions; food preferences; novel food; edible filamentous fungi; sustainable food production; resource recovery
National Category
Engineering and Technology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Food Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-23707 (URN)10.3390/foods9081112 (DOI)000564731600001 ()2-s2.0-85092280470 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-19 Created: 2020-08-19 Last updated: 2023-04-18Bibliographically approved
Gmoser, R., Sintca, C., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Lennartsson, P. R. (2019). Combining submerged and solid state fermentation to convert waste bread into protein and pigment using the edible filamentous fungus N. intermedia.. Waste Management, 97, 63-70, Article ID S0956-053X(19)30509-4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining submerged and solid state fermentation to convert waste bread into protein and pigment using the edible filamentous fungus N. intermedia.
2019 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 97, p. 63-70, article id S0956-053X(19)30509-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Waste streams from ethanol and bread production present inexpensive, abundant and underutilized renewable substrates that are highly available for valorisation into high-value products. A combined submerged to solid state fermentation strategy was studied using the edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia to biotransform ethanol plant residues 'thin stillage' and waste bread as substrates for the production of additional ethanol, biomass and a feed product rich in pigment. The fungus was able to degrade the stillage during submerged fermentation, producing 81 kg ethanol and 65 kg fungal biomass per ton dry weight of thin stillage. Concurrently, the second solid state fermentation step increased the protein content in waste bread by 161%. Additionally, 1.2 kg pigment per ton waste bread was obtained at the best conditions (6 days solid state fermentation under light at 95% relative humidity at 35 °C with an initial substrate moisture content of 40% using washed fungal biomass to initiate fermentation). This study presents a means of increasing the value of waste bread while reducing the treatment load on thin stillage in ethanol plants.

Keywords
Carotenoids, Edible filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia, Solid state fermentation, Value-added products
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-22392 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2019.07.039 (DOI)000485213500008 ()31447028 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85071975599 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2021-08-16Bibliographically approved
Gmoser, R., Ferreira, J., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Lennartsson, P. R. (2019). Post-treatment of Fungal Biomass to Enhance Pigment Production. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-treatment of Fungal Biomass to Enhance Pigment Production
2019 (English)In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new post-treatment method of fungal biomass after fermentation is revealed. The post-treatment strategy was utilized to produce pigments as an additional valuable metabolite. Post-treatment included incubation at 95% relative humidity where the effects of harvesting time, light, and temperature were studied. Pigment-producing edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia cultivated on ethanol plant residuals produced 4 g/L ethanol and 5 g/L fungal biomass. Harvesting the pale biomass after 48 h submerged cultivation compared to 24 h or 72 h increased pigmentation in the post-treatment step with 35% and 48%, respectively. The highest pigment content produced, 1.4 mg/g dry fungal biomass, was obtained from washed biomass treated in light at 35 °C whereof the major impact on pigmentation was from washed biomass. Moreover, post-treated biomass contained 50% (w/w) crude protein. The post-treatment strategy successfully adds pigments to pre-obtained biomass. The pigmented fungal biomass can be considered for animal feed applications for domestic animals.

Keywords
Pigments, Neurospora intermedia, Carotenoids, Edible filamentous fungi, Post-treatment
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-21568 (URN)10.1007/s12010-019-02961-y (DOI)000480585200013 ()2-s2.0-85064279196 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2020-01-29
Nair, R. B., Gmoser, R., Lennartsson, P. R. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2018). Does the second messenger cAMP have a more complex role in controlling filamentous fungal morphology and metabolite production?. MicrobiologyOpen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the second messenger cAMP have a more complex role in controlling filamentous fungal morphology and metabolite production?
2018 (English)In: MicrobiologyOpen, E-ISSN 2045-8827Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2018
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14831 (URN)10.1002/mbo3.627 (DOI)000440928500015 ()2-s2.0-85045101454 (Scopus ID)20458827 (ISSN) (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2023-08-02
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0923-1097

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