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Zamani, Akram
Publications (10 of 45) Show all publications
Furgier, V., Root, A., Heinmaa, I., Zamani, A. & Åkesson, D. (2024). Development and Characterisation of Composites Prepared from PHBV Compounded with Organic Waste Reinforcements, and Their Soil Biodegradation. Materials, 17(3), Article ID 768.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and Characterisation of Composites Prepared from PHBV Compounded with Organic Waste Reinforcements, and Their Soil Biodegradation
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2024 (English)In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 768Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is a biobased and biodegradable polymer. This polymer is considered promising, but it is also rather expensive. The objective of this study was to compound PHBV with three different organic fillers considered waste: human hair waste (HHW), sawdust (SD) and chitin from shrimp shells. Thus, the cost of the biopolymer is reduced, and, at the same time, waste materials are valorised into something useful. The composites prepared were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile strength and scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Tests showed that chitin and HHW did not have a reinforcing effect on tensile strength while the SD increased the tensile strength at break to a certain degree. The biodegradation of the different composites was evaluated by a soil burial test for five months. The gravimetric test showed that neat PHBV was moderately degraded (about 5% weight loss) while reinforcing the polymer with organic waste clearly improved the biodegradation. The strongest biodegradation was achieved when the biopolymer was compounded with HHW (35% weight loss). The strong biodegradation of HHW was further demonstrated by characterisation by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Characterisation by SEM showed that the surfaces of the biodegraded samples were eroded.

Keywords
PHBV, biocomposite, biodegradation, sawdust, hair waste, chitin
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31632 (URN)10.3390/ma17030768 (DOI)001160406300001 ()
Available from: 2024-02-27 Created: 2024-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-27
Mousavi, N., Parchami, M., Kumar Ramamoorthy, S., Mahboubi, A., Hakkarainen, M. & Zamani, A. (2023). Bioconversion of Carrot Pomace to Value-Added Products: Rhizopus delemar Fungal Biomass and Cellulose. Fermentation, 9(4), Article ID 374.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioconversion of Carrot Pomace to Value-Added Products: Rhizopus delemar Fungal Biomass and Cellulose
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2023 (English)In: Fermentation, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carrot pomace (CP) which is generated in a large volume in the juice production process, is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose, sugars, pectin, and minerals. However, in many previous investigations, only cellulose was purified and utilized while other components of CP were discarded as waste. Here, CP was valorized into fungal biomass and cellulose with the aim of utilizing all the CP components. Enzymatic pretreatments were applied to solubilize the digestible fraction of CP including hemicellulose, pectin, sucrose, and other sugars for fungal cultivation, while cellulose remained intact in the solid fraction. The dissolved fraction was utilized as a substrate for the cultivation of an edible fungus (Rhizopus delemar). Fungal cultivation was performed in shake flasks and bench-scale bioreactors. The highest fungal biomass concentration was obtained after pretreatment with invertase (5.01 g/L) after 72 h of cultivation (36 and 42% higher than the concentrations obtained after hemicellulase and pectinase treatments, respectively). Invertase pretreatment resulted in the hydrolysis of sucrose, which could then be taken up by the fungus. Carbohydrate analysis showed 28–33% glucan, 4.1–4.9% other polysaccharides, 0.01% lignin, and 2.7–7% ash in the CP residues after enzymatic pretreatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also confirmed the presence of cellulose in this fraction. The obtained fungal biomass has a high potential for food or feed applications, or as a raw material for the development of biomaterials. Cellulose could be purified from the solid fraction and used for applications such as biobased-textiles or membranes for wastewater treatment, where pure cellulose is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
filamentous fungi, Rhizopus delemar, carrot pomace, cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, fungal cultivation
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29841 (URN)10.3390/fermentation9040374 (DOI)000976439500001 ()2-s2.0-85153943536 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-26 Created: 2023-05-26 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Wijayarathna, E. K., Mohammadkhani, G., Moghadam, F. H., Berglund, L., Ferreira, J., Adolfsson, K. H., . . . Zamani, A. (2023). Tunable Fungal Monofilaments from Food Waste for Textile Applications. Global Challenges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tunable Fungal Monofilaments from Food Waste for Textile Applications
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2023 (English)In: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

A fungal biorefinery is presented to valorize food waste to fungal monofilaments with tunable properties for different textile applications. Rhizopus delemar is successfully grown on bread waste and the fibrous cell wall is isolated. A spinnable hydrogel is produced from cell wall by protonation of amino groups of chitosan followed by homogenization and concentration. Fungal hydrogel is wet spun to form fungal monofilaments which underwent post-treatments to tune the properties. The highest tensile strength of untreated monofilaments is 65 MPa (and 4% elongation at break). The overall highest tensile strength of 140.9 MPa, is achieved by water post-treatment. Moreover, post-treatment with 3% glycerol resulted in the highest elongation % at break, i.e., 14%. The uniformity of the monofilaments also increased after the post-treatments. The obtained monofilaments are compared with commercial fibers using Ashby's plots and potential applications are discussed. The wet spun monofilaments are located in the category of natural fibers in Ashby's plots. After water and glycerol treatments, the properties shifted toward metals and elastomers, respectively. The compatibility of the monofilaments with human skin cells is supported by a biocompatibility assay. These findings demonstrate fungal monofilaments with tunable properties fitting a wide range of sustainable textiles applications. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
National Category
Engineering and Technology Industrial Biotechnology Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30531 (URN)10.1002/gch2.202300098 (DOI)001066479100001 ()2-s2.0-85171286785 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2018–04093
Available from: 2023-09-21 Created: 2023-09-21 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Akintunde, M., Adebayo-Tayo, B. C., Ishola, M. M., Zamani, A. & Sárvári Horváth, I. (2022). Bacterial Cellulose Production from agricultural Residues by two Komagataeibacter sp. Strains. Bioengineered, 13(4), 10010-10025
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bacterial Cellulose Production from agricultural Residues by two Komagataeibacter sp. Strains
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2022 (English)In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 10010-10025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agricultural residues are constantly increasing with increased farming processes, and improper disposal is detrimental to the environment. Majority of these waste residues are rich in lignocellulose, which makes them suitable substrate for bacterial fermentation in the production of valueadded products. In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC), a purer and better form of cellulose, was produced by two Komagataeibacter sp. isolated from rotten banana and kombucha drink using corncob (CC) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) enzymatic hydrolyzate, under different fermentation conditions, that is, static, continuous, and intermittent agitation. The physicochemical and mechanical properties of the BC films were then investigated by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry analysis, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Dynamic mechanical analysis. Agitation gave a higher BC yield, with Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73629 producing BC from CC with a dry weight of 1.6 g/L and 1.4 g/L under continuous and intermittent agitation, respectively, compared with that of 0.9 g/L in HS medium. While BC yield of dry weight up to 1.2 g/L was obtained from SCB by Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73630 under continuous agitation compared to that of 0.3 g/L in HS medium. FTIR analysis showed BC bands associated with cellulose I, with high thermal stability. The FE-SEM analysis showed that BC fibers were highly ordered and densely packed. Although the BC produced by both strains showed similar physicochemical and morphological properties, the BC produced by the Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73630 in CC under intermittent agitation had the best modulus of elasticity, 10.8 GPa and tensile strength, 70.9 MPa. [GRAPHICS]

National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27795 (URN)10.1080/21655979.2022.2062970 (DOI)000783506100001 ()2-s2.0-85128138635 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-04-28 Created: 2022-04-28 Last updated: 2023-01-18
Perrin, N., Mohammadkhani, G., Homayouni Moghadam, F., Delattre, C. & Zamani, A. (2022). Biocompatible fibers from fungal and shrimp chitosans for suture application. Current Research in Biotechnology, 4, 530-536
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biocompatible fibers from fungal and shrimp chitosans for suture application
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2022 (English)In: Current Research in Biotechnology, ISSN 2590-2628, Vol. 4, p. 530-536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purified fungal chitosan and crustacean chitosan were wet spun by using adipic and lactic acids as solvent. The lowest viscosity at which fiber formation was possible was 0.5 Pa·s; below this value, aggregates from low molecular weight fungal chitosan (32 kDa) formed, which could not be collected and dried. Fiber formation was achieved with high molecular weight fungal (400 kDa) and shrimp (406.7 kDa) chitosans as well as low molecular weight shrimp chitosan (50–190 kDa). Fibers made of high molecular weight chitosans with adipic acid as the solvent generally exhibited higher tensile strength; the highest observed tensile strength and Young’s modulus were 308.0 ± 18.4 MPa and 22.7 ± 4.0 GPa, respectively. SEM images indicated the formation of cylindrical chitosan fibers. The survival (viability) of human skin fibroblasts in presence of different fibers was measured using tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay and results confirmed that chitosan fibers have better biocompatibility than common conventional sutures, regardless of the chitosan and acid type. Accordingly, chitosan fibers from fungal and shrimp sources serve as good candidates for application as sutures.

Keywords
Fungal chitosan, Shrimp chitosan, Wet spinning, Adipic acid, Lactic acid, Biocompatibility, Suture
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29290 (URN)10.1016/j.crbiot.2022.10.007 (DOI)000903554800006 ()2-s2.0-85140051762 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-04093
Available from: 2023-01-13 Created: 2023-01-13 Last updated: 2023-01-16Bibliographically approved
Benedikt Maria Köhnlein, M., Abitbol, T., Osório Oliveira, A., Magnusson, M. S., Adolfsson, K. H., Svensson, S., . . . Zamani, A. (2022). Bioconversion of food waste to biocompatible wet-laid fungal films. Materials & design, 216, Article ID 110534.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioconversion of food waste to biocompatible wet-laid fungal films
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2022 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 216, article id 110534Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fungus Rhizopus delemar was grown on bread waste in a submerged cultivation process and wet-laid into films. Alkali or enzyme treatments were used to isolate the fungal cell wall. A heat treatment was also applied to deactivate biological activity of the fungus. Homogenization of fungal biomass was done by an iterative ultrafine grinding process. Finally, the biomass was cast into films by a wet-laid process. Ultrafine grinding resulted in densification of the films. Fungal films showed tensile strengths of up to 18.1 MPa, a Young's modulus of 2.3 GPa and a strain at break of 1.4%. Highest tensile strength was achieved using alkali treatment, with SEM analysis showing a dense and highly organized structure. In contrast, less organized structures were obtained using enzymatic or heat treatments. A cell viability assay and fluorescent staining confirmed the biocompatibility of the films. A promising route for food waste valorization to sustainable fungal wet-laid films was established. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Biocompatible, Filamentous fungi, Food waste, Ultrafine grinding, Wet-laid film, Zygomycetes, Bioactivity, Elastic moduli, Fungi, Grinding (machining), Heat treatment, Tensile strength, Alkali treatment, Cultivation process, Filamentous fungus, Organized structure, Rhizopus delemar, Submerged cultivation, Ultra-fine grinding, Biocompatibility
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology Bio Materials Polymer Chemistry
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27825 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110534 (DOI)000806351300008 ()2-s2.0-85126375844 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-04093
Available from: 2022-05-04 Created: 2022-05-04 Last updated: 2023-02-20
Dumitrescu, D., Kooroshnia, M., Syed, S. & Zamani, A. (2022). Orange Waste Films as a Raw Material for Designing Bio-Based Textiles: A Hybrid Research Method. Materials Science Forum, 1063, 3-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Orange Waste Films as a Raw Material for Designing Bio-Based Textiles: A Hybrid Research Method
2022 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 1063, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
Abstract [en]

Bio-based textiles are an emerging area of cross-disciplinary research, involving material science and design and contributing to textile sustainability. An example of a bio-based textile is an orange-waste film, which is plant-based and biodegradable and possesses mechanical properties which are comparable to some commodity plastics. The research project presented in this article aimed to explore orange-waste film as a new material for textile and fashion design and highlights how experimental co-design processes and innovation involving orange waste film as a textile material adds a new layer of material understanding to both textile design and technology-driven material research. Material-development methods were used to develop the orange-waste film, as were textile design methods with a focus on surface design. The results show that material variables such as tensile strength and elongation are dependent on the grinding process and drying temperature used for the raw material, as these determined the quality and durability of the orange-waste film and its applicability to the field of textile design. The use of orange waste in the creation of textiles opens up more ways of thinking about and working with materials, and orange waste could become a desirable raw material for textile design on the basis that it introduces certain aesthetic and functional possibilities through its visual and tactile expression and material behaviour, in addition to defining methods of producing textiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: , 2022
Keywords
Bio-Based Textiles, Fashion Design, Hybrid Research Method, Orange Waste, Subtractive Textures, Textile, Ultrafine Friction Grinding
National Category
Bio Materials Design
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Textiles and Fashion (Design)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27985 (URN)10.4028/p-07b811 (DOI)2-s2.0-85132774425 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-11 Created: 2022-06-11 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Svensson, S., Oliveira, A. O., Adolfsson, K. H., Heinmaa, I., Root, A., Kondori, N., . . . Zamani, A. (2022). Turning food waste to antibacterial and biocompatible fungal chitin/chitosan monofilaments. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 209, 618-630
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turning food waste to antibacterial and biocompatible fungal chitin/chitosan monofilaments
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 209, p. 618-630Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here, cell wall of a zygomycete fungus, Rhizopus delemar, grown on bread waste was wet spun into monofilaments. Using the whole cell wall material omits the common chitosan isolation and purification steps and leads to higher material utilization. The fungal cell wall contained 36.9% and 19.7% chitosan and chitin, respectively. Solid state NMR of the fungal cell wall material confirmed the presence of chitosan, chitin, and other carbohydrates. Hydrogels were prepared by ultrafine grinding of the cell wall, followed by addition of lactic acid to protonate the amino groups of chitosan, and subsequently wet spun into monofilaments. The monofilament inhibited the growth of Bacillus megaterium (Gram+ bacterium) and Escherichia coli (Gram- bacterium) significantly (92.2% and 99.7% respectively). Cytotoxicity was evaluated using an in vitro assay with human dermal fibroblasts, indicating no toxic inducement from exposure of the monofilaments. The antimicrobial and biocompatible fungal monofilaments, open new avenues for sustainable biomedical textiles from abundant food waste. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Antibacterial, Biocompatibility, MAS NMR, Chitin/chitosan, Fungal textiles, Wet spinning
National Category
Organic Chemistry Other Industrial Biotechnology Microbiology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27826 (URN)10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.031 (DOI)000919073000003 ()2-s2.0-85128311260 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-04093ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 18-449European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), TK134
Available from: 2022-05-04 Created: 2022-05-04 Last updated: 2023-03-02
Salehinik, F., Behzad, T., Zamani, A. & Bahrami, B. (2021). Extraction and characterization of fungal chitin nanofibers from Mucor indicus cultured in optimized medium conditions. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 167, 1126-1134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extraction and characterization of fungal chitin nanofibers from Mucor indicus cultured in optimized medium conditions
2021 (English)In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 167, p. 1126-1134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chitin nanofibers (ChNFs) were extracted from Mucor indicus by a purification method followed by a mechanical treatment, cultivated under obtained optimum culture medium conditions to improve fungal chitin production rate. A semi synthetic media containing 50 g/l glucose was used for cultivation of the fungus in shake flasks. The cell wall analysis showed that N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) content, which is an indication of chitin content, was maximum in presence of 2.5 g/l H3PO4, 2.5 g/l of NaOH, 1 g/l of yeast extract, 1 mg/l of plant hormones, and 1 ml/l of trace metals. The chemical characterizations demonstrated that the isolated fibers had a degree of deacetylation lower than of 10%, and were phosphate free. The FTIR results revealed successful removal of different materials during the purification step. The FE-SEM of fibrillated chitin illustrated an average diameter of 28 nm. Finally, X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallinity index of nanofibers was 82%.

Keywords
Chitin nanofiber, Mucor indicus, Optimized cultivation, chitin nanoparticle, glucose, n acetylglucosamine, phosphate, chitin, chitosan, fungal polysaccharide, nanofiber, Article, concentration (parameter), controlled study, deacetylation, decolorization, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fungal biomass, fungal cell wall, high performance liquid chromatography, Mucor, nonhuman, purification, reaction optimization, scanning electron microscopy, X ray diffraction, analysis, biomass, chemistry, conditioned medium, culture medium, fractionation, infrared spectroscopy, isolation and purification, procedures, Chemical Fractionation, Culture Media, Culture Media, Conditioned, Fungal Polysaccharides, Nanofibers, Phosphates, Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared, X-Ray Diffraction
National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-25978 (URN)10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.066 (DOI)000606683200099 ()33188816 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85096181555 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-09 Created: 2021-07-09 Last updated: 2022-01-18Bibliographically approved
Wijayarathna, E. K., Mohammadkhani, G., Mahboubi Soufiani, A., Adolfsson, K. H., Ferreira, J., Hakkarainen, M., . . . Zamani, A. (2021). Fungal textile alternatives from bread waste with leather-like properties. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Article ID 106041.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fungal textile alternatives from bread waste with leather-like properties
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2021 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, article id 106041Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food waste and fashion pollution are two of the most prominent global environmental issues. To alleviate the problems associated with food waste, while simultaneously contributing to sustainable fashion, the feasibility of making an alternative textile material with leather-like properties from fungal biomass cultivated on bread waste was investigated. The filamentous fungus, Rhizopus delemar, was successfully grown on waste bread in a submerged cultivation process, and fungal biomass was treated with vegetable tannin of chestnut wood. NMR and FTIR confirmed interactions between tannin and fungal biomass, while OM, SEM and AFM visualised the changes in the hyphae upon the tannin treatment. Thermal stability was assessed using TGA analysis. The wet-laid technique commonly utilised for paper-making was used to prepare sheets of hyphae. Some of the sheets were treated with glycerol and/or a biobased binder as post-treatment. Overall, three of the produced materials exhibited leather-like properties comparable to that of natural leather. Sheets from untreated biomass with only glycerol post-treatment showed a tensile strength of 7.7 MPa and an elongation at break of 5%. Whereas sheets from untreated biomass and tannin treated biomass with both glycerol and binder treatments led to tensile strengths of 7.1 MPa and 6.9 MPa, and the elongation at break of 12% and 17%, respectively. The enhancement of hydrophobicity after the binder treatment, helped to preserve the absorbed glycerol within the sheet and thereby the flexibility was retained when in contact with moisture. These findings demonstrate that bread waste-derived fungal sheets have great potential as environmentally friendly materials with leather-like properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Fungal textiles, Food waste recovery, Filamentous fungi, Tanning, NMR, AFM, TGA
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26958 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.106041 (DOI)000774321500008 ()2-s2.0-85119499642 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, Bio4EnergyVinnova, 2018–04093European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), TK134
Available from: 2021-11-30 Created: 2021-11-30 Last updated: 2022-09-14Bibliographically approved
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