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Zamani, Akram
Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Gustafsson, J., Landberg, M., Bátori, V., Åkesson, D., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Zamani, A. (2019). Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace. Polymers, 11(2), Article ID 289.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. 

Keywords
apple pomace, biofilm, biomaterials, compression molding, fiberboard, solution casting
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15718 (URN)10.3390/polym11020289 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061399977 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Bátori, V., Lundin, M., Åkesson, D., Lennartsson, P. R., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Zamani, A. (2019). The Effect of Glycerol, Sugar, and Maleic Anhydride on Pectin-Cellulose Thin Films Prepared from Orange Waste. POLYMERS, 11(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Glycerol, Sugar, and Maleic Anhydride on Pectin-Cellulose Thin Films Prepared from Orange Waste
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2019 (English)In: POLYMERS, Vol. 11, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study was conducted to improve the properties of thin films prepared from orange waste by the solution casting method. The main focus was the elimination of holes in the film structure by establishing better cohesion between the major cellulosic and pectin fractions. For this, a previously developed method was improved first by the addition of sugar to promote pectin gelling, then by the addition of maleic anhydride. Principally, maleic anhydride was introduced to the films to induce cross-linking within the film structure. The effects of concentrations of sugar and glycerol as plasticizers and maleic anhydride as a cross-linking agent on the film characteristics were studied. Maleic anhydride improved the structure, resulting in a uniform film, and morphology studies showed better adhesion between components. However, it did not act as a cross-linking agent, but rather as a compatibilizer. The middle level (0.78%) of maleic anhydride content resulted in the highest tensile strength (26.65 +/- 3.20 MPa) at low (7%) glycerol and high (14%) sugar levels and the highest elongation (28.48% +/- 4.34%) at high sugar and glycerol levels. To achieve a uniform film surface with no holes present, only the lowest (0.39%) level of maleic anhydride was necessary.

Keywords
bio-based, film, mechanical properties, polysaccharides, resource recovery, solution casting, orange waste
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-21529 (URN)10.3390/polym11030392 (DOI)000464512900002 ()2-s2.0-85066752753 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-07
Gurram, R., Souza Filho, P., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Zamani, A. (2018). A solvent-free approach for production of films from pectin and fungal biomass. Journal of polymers and the environment, 26(11), 4282-4292
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A solvent-free approach for production of films from pectin and fungal biomass
2018 (English)In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1064-7546, E-ISSN 1572-8900, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 4282-4292Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-binding ability of the pectin molecules was used to produce pectin films using the compression molding technique, as an alternative method to the high energy-demanding and solvent-using casting technique. Moreover, incorporation of fungal biomass and its effects on the properties of the films was studied. Pectin powder plasticized with 30% glycerol was subjected to heat compression molding (120 °C, 1.33 MPa, 10 min) yielding pectin films with tensile strength and elongation at break of 15.7 MPa and 5.5%, respectively. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was cultivated using the water-soluble nutrients obtained from citrus waste and yielded a biomass containing 31% proteins and 20% lipids. Comparatively, the same strain was cultivated in a semi-synthetic medium resulting in a biomass with higher protein (60%) and lower lipid content (10%). SEM images showed addition of biomass yielded films with less debris compared to the pectin films. Incorporation of the low protein content biomass up to 15% did not significantly reduce the mechanical strength of the pectin films. In contrast, addition of protein-rich biomass (up to 20%) enhanced the tensile strength of the films (16.1–19.3 MPa). Lastly, the fungal biomass reduced the water vapor permeability of the pectin films.

Keywords
Citrus waste, Pectin, Compression molding, Rhizopus oryzae, Bioplastics
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15055 (URN)10.1007/s10924-018-1300-x (DOI)000446743000011 ()2-s2.0-85052708199 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2018-11-30Bibliographically approved
Bátori, V., Åkesson, D., Zamani, A., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Sárvári Horváth, I. (2018). Anaerobic degradation of bioplastics: A review. Waste Management, 80, 406-413
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic degradation of bioplastics: A review
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2018 (English)In: Waste Management, Vol. 80, p. 406-413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), leading to renewableenergy production in the form of methane, is a preferable method for dealing with the increasing amountof waste. Food waste is separated at the source in many countries for anaerobic digestion. However, thepresence of plastic bags is a major challenge for such processes. This study investigated the anaerobicdegradability of different bioplastics, aiming at potential use as collecting bags for the OFMSW. Thechemical composition of the bioplastics and the microbial community structure in the AD processaffected the biodegradation of the bioplastics. Some biopolymers can be degraded at hydraulic retentiontimes usually applied at the biogas plants, such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s, starch, cellulose and pectin,so no possible contamination would occur. In the future, updated standardization of collecting bags forthe OFMSW will be required to meet the requirements of effective operation of a biogas plant.

Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Biodegradation, Bioplastics, Food waste, Methane, Plastic bags
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15152 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2018.09.040 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054156950 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Souza Filho, P. F., Zamani, A. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2018). Edible Protein Production by Filamentous Fungi using Starch Plant Wastewater. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Edible Protein Production by Filamentous Fungi using Starch Plant Wastewater
2018 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The process to obtain starch from wheat requires high amounts of water, consequently generating large amounts of wastewater with very high environmental loading. This wastewater is traditionally sent to treatment facilities. This paper introduces an alternative method, where the wastewater of a wheat-starch plant is treated by edible filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae) to obtain a protein-rich biomass to be used as e.g. animal feed. The wastewater was taken from the clarified liquid of the first and second decanter (ED1 and ED2, respectively) and from the solid-rich stream (SS), whose carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations ranged between 15 and 90 and 1.25–1.40 g/L, respectively. A. oryzae showed better performance than R. oryzae, removing more than 80% of COD after 3 days for ED1 and ED2 streams. Additionally, 12 g/L of dry biomass with protein content close to 35% (w/w) was collected, demonstrating the potential of filamentous fungi to be used in wastewater valorization. High content of fermentable solids in the SS sample led to high production of ethanol (10.91 g/L), which can be recovered and contribute to the economics of the process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2018
Keywords
Bioethanol, Filamentous fungi, Fungal biomass, Wastewater treatment
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14846 (URN)10.1007/s12649-018-0265-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042924369 (Scopus ID)18772641 (ISSN) (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-01 Created: 2018-08-01 Last updated: 2018-08-30
Mohsenzadeh, A., Zamani, A. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2017). Bioethylene Production from Ethanol: A Review and Techno-economical Evaluation.. Challenges in Sustainability, 4(2), 75-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioethylene Production from Ethanol: A Review and Techno-economical Evaluation.
2017 (English)In: Challenges in Sustainability, ISSN 2196-0216, E-ISSN 2196-9744, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 75-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Manufg. of bioethylene via dehydration of bioethanol is an alternative to the fossil-based ethylene prodn. and decreases the environmental consequences for this chem. commodity. A few industrial plants that utilize 1st generation bioethanol for the bioethylene prodn. already exist, although not functioning without subsidiaries. However, there is still no process producing ethylene from 2nd generation bioethanol. This study is divided into two parts. Different ethanol and ethylene prodn. methods, the process specifications and current technologies are briefly discussed in the first part. In the second part, a techno-economic anal. of a bioethylene plant was performed using Aspen plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, where different qualities of ethanol were considered. The results show that impurities in the ethanol feed have no significant effect on the quality of the produced polymer-grade bioethylene. The capacity of the ethylene storage tank significantly affects the capital costs of the process. [on SciFinder(R)]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2017
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12535 (URN)10.1002/cben.201600025 (DOI)000399898600001 ()
Note

Copyright (C) 2017 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.; CAPLUS AN 2017:676784(Journal; Online Computer File)

Available from: 2017-08-27 Created: 2017-08-27 Last updated: 2017-09-28Bibliographically approved
Bátori, V., Åkesson, D., Zamani, A. & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2017). Pectin-based Composites. In: Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials: Biodegradable Materials (pp. 487-518). John Wiley & Sons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pectin-based Composites
2017 (English)In: Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials: Biodegradable Materials, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 487-518Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One third of the cell wall of vascular plants is composed of pectin, which serves as the cementing material for the cellulosic network, behaving as a stabilized gel. Industrially, pectin is produced from juice and sugar production waste. Different sources and extraction conditions result in diversity in characteristics and applications of pectin. Most commonly, pectin is used in the food industry as a gelling and thickening agent and it is favored in the pharmaceutical industry as a carrier for colon-specific drugs. Pectin has good potential to be utilized as a matrix in production of environmentally friendly film packaging as well as biocomposite materials. Pectin is sensitive to chemical reactions and promotes the homogeneous immobilization of cells, genes, and proteins. However, due to limited mechanical properties pectin is not used for structural applications but instead rather for composites in which its biodegradable properties can be utilized. Pectin is often reinforced with hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. It can also be used as a biosorbent for copper removal from aqueous solutions. Active packaging of nanohybrids composed of pectin and halloysite nanotubes that are loaded with rosemary essential oil is another application of pectin-based composites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
pectin, biodegradable, composite, nanocomposite, renewable, reinforcement
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12108 (URN)978-1-119-22379-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-05-04Bibliographically approved
Satari, B., Palhed, J., Karimi, K., Lundin, M., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Zamani, A. (2017). Process optimization for citrus waste biorefinery via simultaneous pectin extraction and pretreatment.. BioResources, 12(1), 1706-1722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process optimization for citrus waste biorefinery via simultaneous pectin extraction and pretreatment.
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2017 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1706-1722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a novel valorization approach for simultaneous pectin extn. and pretreatment (SPEP) of citrus waste (CW) by dil. nitric acid and ethanol, almost all of the CW was converted to bio-derived chems. in a singlestep process at a low/moderate temp. The SPEP was performed at different temps. (70 °C and 80 °C), pH (1.8, 3.0, and 4.3), and extn. times (2 h and 3 h) with a full factorial design. The max. pectin yield of 45.5% was obtained at pH 1.8, 80 °C, and 2 h. The pectin yields at pH 1.8 were much higher than at pH 4.3 and 3. Also, the degree of methyl-esterification at pH 1.8 was higher than 50%, whereas at the higher pH, low methoxyl pectins were extd. The treated CW obtained after the SPEP, free from limonene, was subjected to sep. cellulolytic enzymic hydrolysis and ethanolic fermn. The glucose yields in the enzymic hydrolyzates were higher for the CW treated at pH 1.8. The fermn. of the enzymic hydrolyzates by Mucor indicus resulted in fungal biomass yields in the range of 355 to 687 mg per g of consumed sugars. The optimum conditions for obtaining the max. SPEP yield (glucose + pectin (g) / raw material (g)*100) were pH 1.8, 80 °C, and 2 h, which resulted in a yield of 58.7% (g/g CW). [on SciFinder(R)]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
North Carolina State University, Dep. of Wood and Paper Science, 2017
Keywords
Citrus waste, Dilute-acid, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Ethanol, Fermentation, Full factorial design, Fungal biomass, Limonene, Mucor indicus, Pectin, Pretreatment
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12532 (URN)10.15376/biores.12.1.1706-1722 (DOI)000397065200123 ()2-s2.0-85028313752 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-27 Created: 2017-08-27 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
Souza Filho, P. & Zamani, A. (2017). Production of Edible Fungi from Potato Protein Liquor (PPL) in Airlift Bioreactor. Fermentation, 3(1), 12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Edible Fungi from Potato Protein Liquor (PPL) in Airlift Bioreactor
2017 (English)In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Potato protein liquor (PPL), a side stream from the potato starch industry, is normally used as fertilizer. However, with more than 100 g/L of sugars, 20 g/L of Kjeldahl nitrogen and Chemical Oxigen Demand (COD) of 300 g/L, it represents serious environmental challenges. The use of PPL for fungal cultivation is a promising solution to convert this waste into valuable products. In this study, PPL was characterized and used to cultivate edible zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae, which is widely used in Southeast Asian cuisine to prepare e.g., tempeh. Moreover, it can be potentially used as a protein source in animal feed worldwide. Under the best conditions, 65.47 ± 2.91 g of fungal biomass per litre of PPL was obtained in airlift bioreactors. The total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the biomass was above 70 g/kg dry biomass. The best results showed 51% reduction of COD and 98.7% reduction in the total sugar content of PPL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: , 2017
Keywords
airlift bioreactor; filamentous fungal biomass; fungal pellets; potato protein liquor; Rhizopus oryzae
National Category
Water Treatment
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14903 (URN)10.3390/fermentation3010012 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Bátori, V., Jabbari, M., Åkesson, D., Lennartsson, P. R., Taherzadeh, M. J. & Zamani, A. (2017). Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2017, 1-9, Article ID 9732329.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, Vol. 2017, p. 1-9, article id 9732329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While citrus waste is abundantly generated, the disposal methods used today remain unsatisfactory: they can be deleterious for ruminants, can cause soil salinity, or are not economically feasible; yet citrus waste consists of various valuable polymers. This paper introduces a novel environmentally safe approach that utilizes citrus waste polymers as a biobased and biodegradable film, for example, for food packaging. Orange waste has been investigated for biofilm production, using the gelling ability of pectin and the strength of cellulosic fibres. A casting method was used to form a film from the previously washed, dried, and milled orange waste. Two film-drying methods, a laboratory oven and an incubator shaker, were compared. FE-SEM images confirmed a smoother film morphology when the incubator shaker was used for drying. The tensile strength of the films was 31.67 ± 4.21 and 34.76 ± 2.64 MPa, respectively, for the oven-dried and incubator-dried films, which is within the range of different commodity plastics. Additionally, biodegradability of the films was confirmed under anaerobic conditions. Films showed an opaque appearance with yellowish colour.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12981 (URN)10.1155/2017/9732329 (DOI)000414729600001 ()2-s2.0-85042320662 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
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