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Torstensson, Håkan
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Carlsson, J., Torstensson, H., Pal, R. & Paras, M. K. (2015). Re:Textile – Planning a Swedish Collection and Sorting Plant for Used Textiles. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re:Textile – Planning a Swedish Collection and Sorting Plant for Used Textiles
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Studien belyser följande frågor:− Finns det några realistiska förutsättningar att etablera en svensk sorteringsanläggning för insamlade textilier med hänsyn tagen till redan etablerade insamlingsstrukturer?− Vilka ar de avgörande kritiska faktorerna?− Hur ser framtiden ut?− Hur kan en framkomlig väg se ut för att etablera en lämplig strategi för en cirkulär ekonomi avseende använda textilier?Grundförutsättningar för studien:Idag bedrivs den ordnade insamlingen av textilier huvudsakligen av välgörenhetsorganisat-ioner som Myrorna, Röda Korset, etc. Av en total konsumtionsvolym på ca 13 kg/capita i Sverige (omfattande kläder och hemtextil) samlas 3-4 kg in av mestadels seriösa operatörer genom direktöverlämning eller genom insamlingscontainrar. Vissa butiker/varumärken har också kommit igång med mottagning av använda textilier, t.ex. H&M, Hemtex, Kapp-Ahl m.fl. Övriga kvantiteter (8-10 kg) har vi inte exakt kännedom om, men troligen hamnar de förr eller senare i containrar för brännbart.Motivet för de seriösa insamlingsorganisationerna att bedriva denna verksamhet är dels att skapa finansiella resurser för att kunna bedriva sin hjälpverksamhet, dels att skapa sysselsätt-ning för en växande kader av personer i arbetsträning och liknande. Detta innebär att verksam-heten i stor utsträckning bedrivs av volontärer samt av subventionerad personal vad avser ar-betskostnader. Samhällsnyttan som skapas genom detta är mycket stor och bör inte äventyras av förändringar i denna struktur. I regeringsuppdraget 2014 till Naturvårdsverket angående hantering av textilier framhålls detta också som en förutsättning.

Den sorteringsverksamhet som bedrivs av dessa organisationer syftar till att sortera ut de bästa produkterna, som har förutsättningar att säljas genom egna butikskanaler. Ungefär 20 % av volymerna tar denna väg, och dessa har en helt avgörande ”värdeuppväxling”. Övriga 80 % exporteras till avsevärt lägre värde än de första 20 procenten.

Eftersom välgörenhetsorganisationerna utför denna första fas på ett utomordentligt kostnads-effektivt sätt, samt därigenom skapar samhällsnytta som också är mycket kostnadseffektiv, kan vi inte se något som helst motiv att ändra på detta förhållande utan kanske istället förbättra möjligheterna att utveckla deras värdefulla arbete.

För en regional/nationell sorteringscentral återstår alltså en potential bestående av ex-portkvantiteterna samt de volymer som hamnar i ”brännbart”.

De beräkningar vi har utfört baseras på en sorteringsanläggning som bedrivs efter normala affärsbetingelser, dvs. avtalsenliga löner, marknadsmässiga hyror och avskrivningar samt rå-dande finansiella kostnader.

Den kritiska volymen för en sådan anläggning har beräknats till en kapacitet om 40 ton/dag motsv. ca 50 anställda. Denna kapacitet motsvarar ca 40 % av totalförbrukningen (13 kg/ca-pita) i Västra Götaland eller ca 170 % om insamlingsnivån ligger på nuvarande ca 3 kg/capita.

För att nå erforderlig volym krävs alltså:

− Utökat geografiskt upptagningsområde

− Maximerade marknadsandelar

− Större insamlad volym per capita.

Beaktande dagens kostnadsläge för en effektiv anläggning om 40 ton/dag samt de mark-nadsmässiga priser/intäkter som idag är för handen avseende ”2nd choice” kvantiteter är projektet inte ekonomiskt försvarbart. Kostnads/intäktsförhållandet ligger på ca 7,80 SEK/kg mot ca 6,50 SEK/kg.

De faktorer som påverkar detta förhållande är följande:

− Andelen förstasortering i fraktionerna (andelen är noll i vårt exempel)

− Totalvolymerna

− Kvalitetsfördelning. Bärbara plagg i förhållande till icke bärbart, dvs. kvantiteter för re-cycling etc.

− Produktiviteten

−Lönekostnaderna

− Låga marknadspriser på framförallt material till recycling samt ”rags” (putstrasor)

− Teknologi för hantering respektive potentiell sensorteknologi för automatisk sortering av-seende främst förekomst av skadliga kemikalier samt fiberinnehåll

− Recyclingsteknik för återvinning av använda fiber till nya fiber; inte kommersiellt tillgäng-lig ännu

− Vertikal integration (insamling-sortering; recyclingprocesser/second hand-retailing)Dessa förhållanden kan självfallet förändras och ändra bilden av konceptets realism.

Slutsatser avseende marknadsutveckling:

Beaktande att framtidens fiberbehov om mer än 200 miljoner ton/år (från nuvarande ca 90 miljoner ton/år) huvudsakligen genereras genom befolkningsökning och ekonomisk tillväxt i utvecklingsländer som utgör dagens exportmarknader, får detta till följd att dessa marknader blir självförsörjande avseende bärbara second hand-kläder. Alltså: våra exportmarknader minskar betydligt.

De tekniker och marknader som måste utvecklas i strävan mot en lönsam cirkulär ekonomi utgörs följaktligen av

− Sorteringsteknik som kan detektera och sortera på skadligt kemiskt innehåll respektive fiberinnehåll. Dessa två sorteringsförutsättningar är grundläggande för säkra och lönsamma produktinnovationer.

− Nya tekniker och processer för utveckling av nya innovativa, värdeskapande produkter från både mekanisk, kemisk och termisk recycling.

Dessa båda områden är centrala för att värdet på insamlade textilier kan öka vad avser både volym och priser.

Förslag till fortsatt arbete; ett diskussionsscenario:Förslaget är att skapa en flexibel öppen struktur, baserad på tre grundkomponenter:

1. Bygg upp regionala sorteringscentra som ger grundförutsättningar för insamlingsorganisationerna att bedriva sin verksamhet på ett effektivt sätt.En bra samlad sorteringsvolym (summan av varje organisations insamling och sortering)ligger lämpligtvis på ca 40 ton/dag. Vissa gemensamma funktioner kan utvecklas som t.ex. balning/packning, intern transportlogistik etc. Detta skulle ge skalfördelar utan att påverka varje organisations egna affärsprocesser. Det bör kunna vara självfinansierat genom hyror respektive sålda logistiktjänster.

2. Skapa en agentur eller liknande med uppgift att sälja exportkvantiteter på uppdrag av insamlingsorganisationerna. Motivet skall vara att bättre kunna optimera en kundsamman-sättning som ger en optimal mix av EKONOMI – EKOLOGI – ETIK. Genom att den totalt genererade volymen blir större borde en professionell organisation kunna nå bättre totalt utfall avseende de tre E:na. Erfarenheter från vår empiri ger vid handen att det finns potential för bättre utfall. Den borde också kunna vara självfinansierad genom t.ex. provisionsintäkter.OBS. Om förutsättningarna förändras enligt vår studie kan en fysisk sorteringsanläggning strukturellt etableras och ersätta agenturen.

3. Ovanstående punkter ger förutsättningar för att bygga upp en testbädd som är inriktad på att kunna serva företag, forskningsorganisationer etc. med kapacitet att köra betatester, som är ett nödvändigt inslag i produktutvecklingsprocessen. Eftersom Sverige saknar en infrastruktur för både subindustriell produktion av fiber och recycling av textilier är detta en viktig förutsättning för utveckling av de produkter/processer som ligger till grund för värdeutvecklingen av använda textilier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2015
Series
Re:textile Report Series: 2015_1
National Category
Economics and Business Environmental Management
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General); Bussiness and IT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-9513 (URN)
Note

Funding Agency: Västra Götalandsregionen

Available from: 2016-04-04 Created: 2016-04-04 Last updated: 2017-05-04Bibliographically approved
Pacheco Martins, A., Torstensson, H. & Pal, R. (2014). Advanced Computing Techniques: New tools for fast fashion sales forecasting. In: : . Paper presented at Ambience14 &10i3m, Tampere Hall, Tampere, Finland 7-9 September 2014. Tampere University of Technology, Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced Computing Techniques: New tools for fast fashion sales forecasting
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper was developed in order to collect resources for future research that aims to design and evaluate an appropriate forecasting system, which is able to contribute to the sustainability of the fast fashion model. It describes in a systematic way how the tasks of forecasting demand and placing orders are currently performed in the fast fashion model. It was also needed to ground this description on theoretical concepts of forecast and management. The study reviews some of the available advanced computing techniques used for forecasting clothing demand and analyzes the implications of better forecasting techniques in the FF model. We expose why there is a need for better forecasting in the fast fashion model and the promising techniques that can be tested to improve managerial operations in the fast fashion model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tampere University of Technology, Finland, 2014
Keywords
Fast fashion, forecasting, operational flexibility, design, advanced computing techniques, Textile Management
National Category
Economics and Business Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-7218 (URN)2320/14139 (Local ID)978-952-15-3269-6 (ISBN)2320/14139 (Archive number)2320/14139 (OAI)
Conference
Ambience14 &10i3m, Tampere Hall, Tampere, Finland 7-9 September 2014
Note

Sponsorship:

Erasmus Mundus SMDTex Program

Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved
Manfredsson, P., Göbel, H. & Torstensson, H. (2014). Agility enabling lean: A team based method for flexibility and structure. Paper presented at 17th QMOD-ICQSS, Quality Management and Organizational Development Conference - International Conference Quality and Service Sciences, Prag, 3-5 sept 2014. Paper presented at 17th QMOD-ICQSS, Quality Management and Organizational Development Conference - International Conference Quality and Service Sciences, Prag, 3-5 sept 2014. Lund University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agility enabling lean: A team based method for flexibility and structure
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A method, derived from lean thinking and agile methods containing four steps, using short, time-boxed iterations, was developed and implemented in a support team. The effects of the method in use include a clearer structure of work tasks in terms of priorities, objective and better alignment with business goals. It also increased closure and definition of tasks and better levelling of work tasks between team members. However, a negative effect was an increased level of stress in the work environment. The agility-based method supported the team’s lean implementation by creating a pull system with work-in-progress control. Other lean elements were improved, such as levelling of workload. Hence the agility-based method approach can be viewed as an enabler for lean management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund University, 2014
Keywords
Lean, Agile, Support process, Textilt management
National Category
Business Administration Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-7337 (URN)2320/14618 (Local ID)978-91-7623-086-2 (ISBN)2320/14618 (Archive number)2320/14618 (OAI)
Conference
17th QMOD-ICQSS, Quality Management and Organizational Development Conference - International Conference Quality and Service Sciences, Prag, 3-5 sept 2014
Note

Sponsorship:

Ericsson AB

Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22
Pal, R., Torstensson, H. & Mattila, H. (2014). Antecedents of organizational resilience in economic crises: an empirical study of Swedish textile and clothing SMEs. International Journal of Production Economics, 147, 410-428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antecedents of organizational resilience in economic crises: an empirical study of Swedish textile and clothing SMEs
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 147, p. 410-428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Economic recessions have created challenges for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and contributed to disruptions requiring them to be resilient. At times of economic crises, SMEs face major threats to their financial performance and ultimately to their survival. The average number of Swedish textile and clothing (T&C) firms that went bankrupt during the recent crisis (2007–09) escalated twofold compared to the average over 2000–10. Following the 1990s economic crisis nearly 12 per cent of the T&C companies went bankrupt in 1994–95. The structural industrial statistics also plummeted in these crisis years, aggravating many internal problems in SMEs as a ripple effect. This study concentrates on the constraints faced by Swedish textile-related SMEs, primarily during the economic crises of the past two decades (1990–93 and end 2007–09), and identifying the antecedents and their different degrees of influence on economic resilience. It also deepens the understanding of the underlying patterns in the antecedents, observed in SMEs, favouring or inhibiting resilience due to their significance or deficit, respectively. The paper adopts an exploratory research conducted in two phases, first through a survey and followed by a series of interviews, responded by eight Swedish T&C SMEs. Annual reports provide a detailed account of the financial performances of these firms. A conceptual resilience framework was developed earlier, based on a review of extant literature. Findings provide insight on how the responding firms considered resourcefulness, viz. cash flow and investment finance, relational networks and material assets, along with ‘dynamic competitiveness’ through strategic and operational flexibility to be key enablers of resilience and financial performance, mostly through generation of profitability, cash flow/liquidity and sales turnover. Responses also highlighted the indirect influence of the ‘soft’ learning and cultural aspects like attentive leadership and collectiveness on economic resilience, considered tacit and ingrained in small or medium-sized family businesses. Additional process initiatives, in particular growth and continuity strategies, were also emergent patterns to properly utilize and direct the antecedents for resilience development. These are beneficial for firms to understand the key areas, in which to invest for developing resilient business models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Resilience, Crisis, Small and medium-sized enterprise, SME, Textile and clothing, Sweden, Organizational Resilience
National Category
Economics and Business Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1779 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpe.2013.02.031 (DOI)000329880300021 ()2320/13242 (Local ID)2320/13242 (Archive number)2320/13242 (OAI)
Note

Part B, Special Issue: Building Supply Chain System Capabilities in the Age of Global Complexity: Emerging Theories and Practices

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Abylaev, M., Pal, R. & Torstensson, H. (2014). Resilience challenges for textile enterprises in a transitional economy and regional trade perspective: a study of Kyrgyz conditions. International Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Resilience, 1(1), 54-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience challenges for textile enterprises in a transitional economy and regional trade perspective: a study of Kyrgyz conditions
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Resilience, ISSN 2052-868X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 54-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to contribute to the resilience development of the textile sector in a transitional economy, based on a case study of the Kyrgyz Republic, where the transition to a free market system generated broken supply chains, low diversification, a high open economy level of the textile sector and dependence on international trade regulations. The approach used is based on theories of organisational resilience, literature studies and fieldwork. Scenarios are developed and analysed by event tree and SWOT analysis, to identify resilience properties of the textile sector. Findings focus on the implications of future membership or non-membership, respectively, in the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, where both supportive and adverse effects have been identified. The results contribute to the knowledge of the transitional economy conditions and serve as a guideline for stakeholders about enhancing resilience, both at the industrial and organisational levels, of the Kyrgyz textile sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience Publishers, 2014
Keywords
organisational resilience, supply chain risk, regionalisation, Customs Union, transitional economy, textiles and apparel, Textile Management, Kyrgyzstan
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1925 (URN)10.1504/IJSCOR.2014.065459 (DOI)2320/14296 (Local ID)2320/14296 (Archive number)2320/14296 (OAI)
Note

Acknowledgement to University of Borås and Erasmus Mundus - TOSCA Program for funding the research period.

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2016-03-15
Urciuoli, L., Ekwall, D. & Torstensson, H. (2013). Achieving harmonized port security training in Europe: a critical review of EU legislative frameworks. Journal of Transportation Security
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving harmonized port security training in Europe: a critical review of EU legislative frameworks
2013 (English)In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775XArticle in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract Ports are complex, multiple-stakeholder environments representing the entrance point of intercontinental sea shipments into a country. Because ports are areas where large amounts of goods converge, they play a strategic role in a country’s security and economic sustenance. Consequently different stakeholders interact to ensure that cargo handling operations are optimized and cost-effective, e.g. international shipping, logistics companies, trading communities, and regulatory bodies. In this context security threats assume a special relevance, since ports could be exploited by criminal organizations to smuggle illicit goods into a country or by terrorists planning an attack. To eliminate or mitigate these risks human resources need to be correctly trained and educated. In addition, the competent authorities need to ensure that the same level and quality of training is delivered to all port facilities providing access to a country or a continent. Unfortunately, experts believe that in the EU there is a lack of harmonization of courses and quality assurance systems. Hence, the aim of this study is to review existing regulatory frameworks and assess whether guidance is provided to harmonize security training and education in port facilities. Thereafter, based on the experience developed within other sectors, where harmonization of training and education courses in the EU has been successfully achieved, we make recommendations for improvement of the existing frameworks. The article concludes by summarizing the findings and indicating implications for managers and researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2013
Keywords
Port Security, Port Security Training, ISPS, Maritime Security, Training and Education, Vocational Education and training, Supply Chain Security, Transport Security, Transport Security, Supply Chain Security, Training and Education
National Category
Economics and Business Law Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1591 (URN)10.1007/s12198-013-0123-1 (DOI)2320/12546 (Local ID)2320/12546 (Archive number)2320/12546 (OAI)
Note

Sponsorship:

EU Leonardo Da Vinci

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Pal, R., Westerlind, R. & Torstensson, H. (2013). Exploring the resilience development process by implementing the crisis strategic planning framework: A Swedish textile SME perspective. International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management, 5(1), 1-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the resilience development process by implementing the crisis strategic planning framework: A Swedish textile SME perspective
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management, ISSN 1753-7169, E-ISSN 1753-7177, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global financial crises have affected the survivability of firms particularly the small and medium ones. Swedish textile-related SMEs were no exception as they showed a higher bankruptcy during the crises. In such a context, resilience development is vital. It is upheld by crisis management, business continuity management and strategic planning thus forming an integrated crisis strategic planning (CSP) framework. This paper highlights such a CSP framework along a six-step resilience development process by identifying environmental turbulences, developing leadership and capability analyses and multiple strategy development combining effective planning and adaptation. A Swedish SME is studied longitudinally to make a comparative analysis of the resilience development process in two crises. This involves practical use of CSP using simple strategic tools or techniques to improve responsiveness and preparedness in an integrated way. SME practitioners can identify the problems, their impacts, ensure competitive market positioning, and develop multiple strategies over a timeframe of development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience Publishers, 2013
Keywords
crisis strategic planning, small and medium-sized enterprises, strategies, growth, business continuity management, Sweden, resilience, Business, Resilience
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1613 (URN)2320/12676 (Local ID)2320/12676 (Archive number)2320/12676 (OAI)
Note

Sponsorship:

F3 - Fashion, Function and Future

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-15Bibliographically approved
Andersson, R., Manfredsson, P. & Torstensson, H. (2013). How to Integrate Suppliers by Training in Lean Thinking. In: Dahlgaard Park, Su Mi, Dahlgaard, Jens, Gomišček, Boštjan (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 16th QMOD-ICQSS Quality Management and Organizational Development Conference, Portorož, 4-6 september 2013. University of Maribor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to Integrate Suppliers by Training in Lean Thinking
2013 (English)In: / [ed] Dahlgaard Park, Su Mi, Dahlgaard, Jens, Gomišček, Boštjan, University of Maribor , 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Much research has addressed how to implement lean in a focal company, but little has been published about how to integrate suppliers in strategies and the focal company’s culture, such as lean production or lean thinking. The purpose of the article is to investigate if suppliers can become more integrated in the supply chain by training in lean thinking at the focal company and to explain a possible structure of the training. Design/methodology/approach: A multiple-case study has been conducted of the focal com- pany and five of its supply companies. The findings are supported empirically by on-site interviews and by observations, as well as by a binomial two-proportion test that was used to analyse the statistical data of the delivery precision. Findings: While the training programme does not show a conclusive result for the supply chain, it has made a difference for all participating suppliers. In most cases the training programme was a trigger that started or boosted the internal work with continuous improvements. In some cases it helped create structured ways of working and improved the internal production flows.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Maribor, 2013
Keywords
lean management, supply chain, training, quality, Textilt management
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-7015 (URN)2320/12603 (Local ID)978-961-232-269-4 (ISBN)2320/12603 (Archive number)2320/12603 (OAI)
Conference
16th QMOD-ICQSS Quality Management and Organizational Development Conference, Portorož, 4-6 september 2013
Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2017-02-02Bibliographically approved
Torstensson, H. & Pal, R. (2013). Resilience in textile enterprises and supply chains. Paper presented at CIRAT-5 - the Fifth International Conference of Applied Research on Textile. Paper presented at CIRAT-5 - the Fifth International Conference of Applied Research on Textile. Monastir University, Tunisien
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience in textile enterprises and supply chains
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Resilience, in an organizational sense meaning the ability to withstand crises and disturbances, is associated with risk and crisis management and business continuity planning, but it also allows for new perspectives and insights into the conditions for doing business. Applied to the whole supply chain it also provides tools for managing and aligning the logistics flows in an appropriate way. In a recent investigation on textile-related SME that have withstood the recent economic crises but faced major threats to their financial performance and survival, it became clear that economic resilience is a property to be cultivated. Resilience is to be considered a discriminating factor between successful and surviving firms and those that fail. Research today on organisational resilience typically addresses its attributes, formative elements and framework, or ways and indicators to measure it. In this overview, recent research on critical success factors and properties supporting resilience development in the textile sector is discussed out of four angles, a three-dimensional concurrent engineering perspective, measuring and quantifying resilience, key enablers of resilience in textile firms and strategic planning for resilience. Capabilities and competences, based on three dimensional concurrent engineering perspectives and complementary value systems, can create several critical success factors for organizations. Current research demonstrates that most of the key success factors are created and sustained through 3-DCE designing. It also highlights the necessity to incorporate intangible value propositions into the 3-DCE model to generate an extended framework for conveying operational performance and so organizational success. For the quantification of resilience, financial statements (1989 to 2009) of 20 companies related to textile, clothing and fashion were analysed to draw the appropriate conclusions. The study used Altman’s Z-score as an indicator of business health, which includes discriminant ratios related to both short-term and long-term goals of a firm. The findings support that there is a relation between the levels of organizational resilience and business health. It is therefore proposed that a business health transition profile (of Z-score) and systematic encoding are effective to differentiate firms in terms of resilience level. The contributions of critical financial ratios to the resilience level in different periods were also assessed for those organisations. For example, in case of two analysed firms the higher liquidity, leverage and solvency, compared to the other studied firms, resulted in maintaining a healthy state, while for two other firms liquidity, profitability and capital-turnover contributed to their resilience development. To find key enablers and antecedents of resilience, a further investigation was conducted in textile and clothing SME, based on a previously developed conceptual resilience framework. Annual reports provided a detailed account of the financial performances of these firms. Findings provide insight as to how the responding firms considered resourcefulness, viz. cash flow and investment finance, relational networks and material assets, along with ‘dynamic competitiveness’ through strategic and operational flexibility, to be key enablers of resilience and financial performance, mostly through generating profitability, liquidity and sales-turnover. Responses also highlighted the indirect influence of the ‘soft’ learning and cultural aspects, like attentive leadership and collectiveness. Other process initiatives (growth and continuity strategies) were also emergent patterns to properly utilize and direct the antecedents for resilience development. Thus firms can develop their resilience potential by tuning their strategic assets and capabilities. For the investigated SME the key variables among them are: a) investment finance and cash flow, b) material assets and networking, c) strategic and operational flexibility, and d) attentive leadership. With regard to strategic planning for resilience, a categorization of resilient and less resilient enterprises in terms of their financial performance was assessed, while identifying their shortcomings in crises and the differentiating strategic initiatives underlying their respective response repertoire. A majority of the case firms identified a decrease in order volume as the major problem during crises. In terms of key strategic initiatives the resilient firms showed better short-term crisis management strategies, due to higher operational flexibility with regard to various cost-cutting measures, such as retrenchment, reduced fixed overhead costs or decreasing customer and supplier base, and an ability to ramp down production when necessary, while the less resilient firms lacked strategic readiness due to resource scarcity. Almost none of the firms could develop any crisis-based growth strategy. The resilient firms differed from the less resilient ones, the most in terms of long-term strategic initiatives showing long-term continuity planning by unique initiatives to improve cost-effectiveness, such as delocalization of manufacturing, continuous improvement and lean management, and in terms of growth strategies as well, like market penetration by increasing sales and product ranges, long-term diversification strategies through market expansion, and long-term transformational initiatives by focusing more on acquisitions and production outsourcing. Such multiple strategic initiatives are essential for developing a model for crisis strategic planning categorizing firms along four difference types of resilience, viz. latent, planned, adaptive and dynamic, and along two dimensions characterized by low and high degrees of planning and adaptation, respectively. It was observed that resilient SME mostly showed planned resilience in financial crises, through long-term continuity plans and growth initiatives. Creation of financial, material, relational and conceptual slack through cost minimization techniques and implementation of growth initiatives were the keys towards development of an organized response repertoire in resilient organizations, as compared to the less resilient ones. A short-term crisis management strategy – cutting costs – was observable in most of the firms. Almost all of them tried to retrench staff and diminish customer base, but the resilient firms also sought legal union’s support to decrease the salary and working hours, so that they can retain competence even in crises. Delocalising production, adjustment of the product pyramid to invest in extension of product range, as well as cost-effective process management were also measures considered by resilient firms to retain operational excellence. The resilient firms also used more flexible production systems along with value adding products in their range, some of them shifting from high volume-low margin products to very specific core products. Furthermore, resilient firms concentrated on increasing sales by extending the product ranges through cross selling and add-on products and services. This registers as sufficient degrees of innovation in the resilient firms. Thus co-management of innovation and excellence provides the right dynamic balance for creating slackness for utilization during strategy formulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Monastir University, Tunisien, 2013
Keywords
organizational resilience, crisis management, textile management, Textilt management
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-6984 (URN)2320/12218 (Local ID)2320/12218 (Archive number)2320/12218 (OAI)
Conference
CIRAT-5 - the Fifth International Conference of Applied Research on Textile
Note
Det är sammanfattningen som återfinns i konferenspublikationen.Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22
Abylaev, M. & Torstensson, H. (2013). Supply chain resilience of Kyrgyz textile companies in regional international trade integration. In: Pawar, KS & Rogers, H (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 18th International Symposium on Logistics, Wien, July 7-10, 2013. Nottingham University Business School
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supply chain resilience of Kyrgyz textile companies in regional international trade integration
2013 (English)In: / [ed] Pawar, KS & Rogers, H, Nottingham University Business School , 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The transitional period of the Kyrgyz economy from planned to free market economy modified the structure of the textile sector. The state owned big textile producers were fragmented into small sized private apparel manufacturers. The main success factor of transformation was the international trade regulation and international textile market conjuncture. Latest regionalization processes of Kyrgyz apparel exporting countries modify the existing competitive advantage of Kyrgyz apparel cluster and obligate to redesign the supply chain in order to withstand the disruption. The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the success factors of resilient supply chain during transitional period and the possibility of transferring from the global to a regional supply chain as the main resilience factor of Kyrgyz apparel companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nottingham University Business School, 2013
Keywords
resiliens, logistik, textil, regional utveckling, Textilt management, industriell ekonomi
National Category
Economics and Business Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-7010 (URN)2320/12593 (Local ID)9780853582922 (ISBN)2320/12593 (Archive number)2320/12593 (OAI)
Conference
18th International Symposium on Logistics, Wien, July 7-10, 2013
Note

Sponsorship:

Europeiska unionen: Erasmus Mundus 'TOSCA'

Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
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