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Kumar Ramamoorthy, SunilORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2325-7928
Publications (10 of 46) Show all publications
Mousavi, N., Kumar Ramamoorthy, S., Hakkarainen, M. & Zamani, A. (2024). Production of Mycelium-Based Papers from Carrot Pomace and Their Potential Applications for Dye Removal. Journal of Polymers and the Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Mycelium-Based Papers from Carrot Pomace and Their Potential Applications for Dye Removal
2024 (English)In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The Current study aimed at valorizing carrot pomace (CP), an abundant waste from the juice industry. A water-soluble fraction of CP was separated from solid fraction of CP (SFCP) and employed as feedstock for producing fungal biomass (FB) in bench-scale bioreactors. FB combined with SFCP were used to develop mycelium-based papers (MBP) using the wet-laid method. The potential and capacity of FB, SFCP and MBP to remove dye (methylene blue) from wastewater was then investigated. The maximum achieved dye removal was 92% when using a mixture of SFCP and FB in their suspended forms. The MBP with the lowest density (549 kg/m3) reached 83% dye elimination. The findings of this study support the valorization of carrot pomace, through environmentally benign processes, to mycelium-based papers with potential application in wastewater treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
carrot pomace, dye removal, filter paper, food waste, fungal biomass, fungal biorefinery
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31789 (URN)10.1007/s10924-024-03238-0 (DOI)001207103000004 ()2-s2.0-85191063665 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-30 Created: 2024-04-30 Last updated: 2024-06-12Bibliographically approved
Moaveni, R., Ghane, M., Soltani, P., Zamani, A. & Kumar Ramamoorthy, S. (2024). Production of Polymeric Films from Orange and Ginger Waste for Packaging Application and Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Characteristics of Biofilms. Applied Sciences, 14(11), Article ID 4670.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Polymeric Films from Orange and Ginger Waste for Packaging Application and Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Characteristics of Biofilms
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2024 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 14, no 11, article id 4670Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Citrus waste has been used as a source of bioplastics for research in different ways. Because the juice industry produces significant amounts of residue each year, it would be advantageous to use the byproducts in the creation of new materials. Researchers have long explored eco-friendly methods to convert citrus and other organic waste into polymers for producing biodegradable films. The goal of this study is to create biofilms from orange waste (OW) and ginger waste (GW) using an ultrafine grinder and study the films’ properties. Since pectin has the ability to gel, and because cellulosic fibers are strong, citrus waste has been studied for its potential to produce biofilms. After being washed, dried, and milled, orange and ginger waste was shaped into films using a casting process. Tensile testing was used to determine the mechanical properties of biofilms, while dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine their thermal properties. As the number of grinding cycles increased, the suspension’s viscosity increased from 29 mPa.s to 57 mPa.s for OW and from 217 mPa.s to 376 mPa.s for GW, while the particle size in the suspension significantly decreased. For OW and GW films, the highest tensile strength was 17 MPa and 15 MPa, respectively. The maximum strain obtained among all films was 4.8%. All the tested films were stable up to 150 °C, and maximum degradation occured after 300 °C.

Keywords
biofilm, bioplastic, orange waste, ginger waste, mechanical properties, thermal properties
National Category
Bio Materials Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-32089 (URN)10.3390/app14114670 (DOI)001245575800001 ()
Available from: 2024-06-24 Created: 2024-06-24 Last updated: 2024-06-24
Mousavi, N., Parchami, M., Kumar Ramamoorthy, S., Mahboubi, A., Hakkarainen, M. & Zamani, A. (2023). Bioconversion of Carrot Pomace to Value-Added Products: Rhizopus delemar Fungal Biomass and Cellulose. Fermentation, 9(4), Article ID 374.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioconversion of Carrot Pomace to Value-Added Products: Rhizopus delemar Fungal Biomass and Cellulose
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2023 (English)In: Fermentation, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carrot pomace (CP) which is generated in a large volume in the juice production process, is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose, sugars, pectin, and minerals. However, in many previous investigations, only cellulose was purified and utilized while other components of CP were discarded as waste. Here, CP was valorized into fungal biomass and cellulose with the aim of utilizing all the CP components. Enzymatic pretreatments were applied to solubilize the digestible fraction of CP including hemicellulose, pectin, sucrose, and other sugars for fungal cultivation, while cellulose remained intact in the solid fraction. The dissolved fraction was utilized as a substrate for the cultivation of an edible fungus (Rhizopus delemar). Fungal cultivation was performed in shake flasks and bench-scale bioreactors. The highest fungal biomass concentration was obtained after pretreatment with invertase (5.01 g/L) after 72 h of cultivation (36 and 42% higher than the concentrations obtained after hemicellulase and pectinase treatments, respectively). Invertase pretreatment resulted in the hydrolysis of sucrose, which could then be taken up by the fungus. Carbohydrate analysis showed 28–33% glucan, 4.1–4.9% other polysaccharides, 0.01% lignin, and 2.7–7% ash in the CP residues after enzymatic pretreatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also confirmed the presence of cellulose in this fraction. The obtained fungal biomass has a high potential for food or feed applications, or as a raw material for the development of biomaterials. Cellulose could be purified from the solid fraction and used for applications such as biobased-textiles or membranes for wastewater treatment, where pure cellulose is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
filamentous fungi, Rhizopus delemar, carrot pomace, cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, fungal cultivation
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29841 (URN)10.3390/fermentation9040374 (DOI)000976439500001 ()2-s2.0-85153943536 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-26 Created: 2023-05-26 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Akbari, S., Root, A., Skrifvars, M., Kumar Ramamoorthy, S. & Åkesson, D. (2023). Novel Bio-based Branched Unsaturated Polyester Resins for High-Temperature Applications. Journal of Polymers and the Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel Bio-based Branched Unsaturated Polyester Resins for High-Temperature Applications
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Unsaturated polyester resins, one of the most important thermosets, are invariably produced from oil-based monomers. Their application is limited in areas where high thermal stability is required due to their low Tg. Besides, these resins contain 30–40% hazardous styrene as a reactive solvent. Therefore, developing bio-based solventless unsaturated polyester resin with medium to high thermomechanical properties compared to petrochemical-based counterparts is important. In order to achieve this, a series of branched bio-based unsaturated polyester resins were synthesized using bulk polymerization method in two steps. In the first step, four different intermediates were prepared by reacting glycerol (as a core molecule) with either isosorbide (diol), 1,3-propanediol (diol), 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (saturated diacid), or adipic acid (saturated diacid). In the second step, the branched intermediate was end capped with methacrylic anhydride to introduce reactive sites for cross-linking on the branch ends. The chemical structure of the resins was characterized by 13C-NMR. FT-IR confirmed the polycondensation reaction in the first step and the end functionalization of the resins with methacrylic anhydride in the second step. The effect of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and isosorbide on thermomechanical and thermal properties was investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results indicated that 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid based resins had superior thermomechanical properties compared to a commercial reference unsaturated polyester resin, making them promising resins for high-temperature composite applications. For example, the resin based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and isosorbide and the resin based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and 1,3-propanediol gave glass transition temperatures of 173 °C and 148 °C, respectively. Although the synthesized 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid based resins had higher viscosity (22.7 Pas) than conventional unsaturated polyester (0.4–0.5 Pas) at room temperature, preheated resins can be used for making high-temperature-tolerance fiber-reinforced composite. 

Keywords
Bio-based unsaturated polyester resins, Isosorbide, 2, 5-Furandicarboxylic acid, High-Tg
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30990 (URN)10.1007/s10924-023-03112-5 (DOI)001103740600001 ()2-s2.0-85176301334 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Fulmali, A. O., Kumar Ramamoorthy, S. & Prusty, R. K. (2023). Water diffusion kinetics study at different hydrothermal bath temperatures and subsequent durability studies of CNT embedded fibrous polymeric composites: Roles of CNT content, functionalization and in‐situ testing temperature. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 140(11)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water diffusion kinetics study at different hydrothermal bath temperatures and subsequent durability studies of CNT embedded fibrous polymeric composites: Roles of CNT content, functionalization and in‐situ testing temperature
2023 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 140, no 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although structural polymers like epoxy are extensively used in marine applications over metallic structures, environmental water tends to ingress into this polymer which may affect its long-term durability. The extent of degradation caused by the absorbed water on polymeric composite's mechanical properties depends on the water diffusion mechanism, environmental temperature and subsequent reversible and irreversible chemical restructuring of the polymer. In this study, hydrothermal conditioning behavior of glass fiber reinforced epoxy (GE) composites with varying (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) wt.% of pristine and functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs and FCNTs) was studied at 15°C (Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Conditioning (LTHC)) and 50°C (Elevated-Temperature Hydrothermal Conditioning (ETHC)) water baths. The changes in chemical bonding characteristics and glass transition temperature of GE composite due to above mentioned factors have been studied by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The gravimetric analysis was employed to monitor the water uptake kinetics of the composites and flexural strength of conditioned composites after 50 days of conditioning and saturation was study to understand the effect of water sorption. Experimental results revealed that, FCNTs greatly hinders the water absorption through the interfaces at LTHC, as the equilibrium water content of 0.1FCNT-GE composite was ~9.5% and ~3.0% and Diffusion coefficient was ~60.0% and ~15.5% lower than the GE and 0.1CNT-GE composites, respectively at LTHC. At LTHC, the water saturated 0.1FCNT-GE composites exhibited superior flexural strength than GE and 0.1CNT-GE composites. At ETHC, generation of hygroscopic stresses and unfavorable stresses at the weak CNT/polymer interface adversely affected the 0.1CNT-GE composites water resistance compared to 0.1FCNT-GE composites with stronger FCNT/polymer interface. The extent of recovery in the flexural strength was evaluated by complete desorption of water-saturated specimens. Finally, a fractography study was conducted to understand the variation in the well-being of the glass fiber/polymer and nanotube/polymer interface due to mentioned varying factors.

Keywords
carbon nanotube, fiber reinforced polymer composites, flexural properties, functionalization, hydrothermal conditioning
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29438 (URN)10.1002/app.53617 (DOI)000971617600025 ()2-s2.0-85146088888 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding information: Science and Engineering Research Board, India, Grant/Award Number: ECR/2018/001241 

Available from: 2023-02-10 Created: 2023-02-10 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Mukesh Kumar, A., Singh, E., Binod, P., Sindhu, R., Sarsaiya, S., Kumar, A., . . . Zhang, Z. Q. (2022). Biotechnological strategies for bio-transforming biosolid into resources toward circular bio-economy: A review. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 156, Article ID 111987.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotechnological strategies for bio-transforming biosolid into resources toward circular bio-economy: A review
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2022 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 156, article id 111987Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biosolids are the biological organic matter extracted from various treatment processes of wastewater which are considered as a rich source of energy and nutrients. The most commonly used method for the disposal of biosolids is landfilling. But this causes the loss of valuable nutrients and creates environmental issues. Circular economy approaches provide a better way for utilization these resources in a sustainable manner. This allows maximum utilization of resources and many natural resources can be preserved and utilized for future generations. The present review provides a comprehensive illustration of biotechnological approaches for the utilization of biosolids. Various process strategies for the utilization of biosolids for the production of energy, fuels and valueadded products are discussed. The utilization of this rich organic matter under circular economy has also been described in detail.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Circular bioeconomy, Bio-solid, Biotransformation, Biofuels, Bioconversion, WASTE ACTIVATED-SLUDGE, FATTY-ACIDS ACCUMULATION, GREENHOUSE-GAS EMISSION, SEWAGE-SLUDGE, ANAEROBIC-DIGESTION, BUTANOL PRODUCTION, WATER SLUDGE, BIOCHAR AMENDMENT, BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology Energy Engineering
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27890 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2021.111987 (DOI)000786622800003 ()2-s2.0-85121122762 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-19 Created: 2022-05-19 Last updated: 2022-11-24Bibliographically approved
Kumar Ramamoorthy, S., Prusty, R. K. & Fulmali, A. O. (2021). Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube. In: Jiji Abraham, Sabu Thomas, Nandakumar Kalarikkal (Ed.), Handbook of Carbon Nanotubes: . Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube
2021 (English)In: Handbook of Carbon Nanotubes / [ed] Jiji Abraham, Sabu Thomas, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Springer, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have outstanding mechanical properties, making them a good candidate for reinforcement application in polymer and fiber-reinforced polymer composites. Superior properties of the CNTs are exploited regularly by reinforcing these nanotubes in a polymer matrix. However, strong Van der Waals interaction energy of tube-tube contact, high electrostatic interaction between the tubes, small tube size, and large surface area of the tubes render CNT dispersion a problematic task. Therefore, to improve its dispersion and alignment in the composite, researchers have developed innovative techniques to strengthen the properties of the composite. For achieving optimum and reproducible mechanical properties in a composite, fine dispersion of CNTs, their alignment, and strong interfacial adhesion with polymer is a demand to be guaranteed. In this chapter, the principles and techniques for uniform dispersion and alignment of CNTs in the polymer and fiber-reinforced polymer composite are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
Carbon nanotube, dispersion, alignment, functionalization, mechanical properties
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26930 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-70614-6 (DOI)978-3-319-70614-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-22 Last updated: 2022-01-04Bibliographically approved
Mohammadkhani, G., Kumar Ramamoorthy, S., Adolfsson, K. H., Mahboubi, A., Hakkarainen, M. & Zamani, A. (2021). New Solvent and Coagulating Agent for Development of Chitosan Fibers by Wet Spinning. Polymers, 13(13), Article ID 2121.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Solvent and Coagulating Agent for Development of Chitosan Fibers by Wet Spinning
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2021 (English)In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 13, article id 2121Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Adipic acid was evaluated as a novel solvent for wet spinning of chitosan fibers. A solvent with two carboxyl groups could act as a physical crosslinker between the chitosan chains, resulting in improved properties of the fibers. The performance of adipic acid was compared with conventional solvents, i.e., lactic, citric, and acetic acids. Chitosan solutions were injected into a coagulation bath to form monofilaments. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and its mixture with ethanol (EtOH) were used as coagulation agents. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of uniform chitosan monofilaments with an even surface when using adipic acid as solvent. These monofilaments generally showed higher mechanical strength compared to that of monofilaments produced using conventional solvents. The highest Young’s modulus, 4.45 GPa, was recorded for adipic acid monofilaments coagulated in NaOH-EtOH. This monofilament also had a high tensile strength of 147.9 MPa. Furthermore, taking advantage of chitosan insolubility in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at room temperature, chitosan fibers were successfully formed upon coagulation in H2SO4-EtOH. The dewatering of fibers using EtOH before drying resulted in a larger fiber diameter and lower mechanical strength. Adipic acid fibers made without dehydration illustrated 18% (for NaOH), 46% (for NaOH-EtOH), and 91% (for H2SO4-EtOH) higher tensile strength compared to those made with dehydration.

Keywords
monofilament, chitosan, adipic acid, wet spinning, sulfuric acid, coagulation bath
National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26036 (URN)10.3390/polym13132121 (DOI)000670961500001 ()2-s2.0-85109411881 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-09 Created: 2021-07-09 Last updated: 2024-02-01
Åkesson, D., Kumar Ramamoorthy, S., Bohlén, M., Skrifvars, V.-V., Svensson, S. & Skrifvars, M. (2021). Thermo-oxidative aging of high-density polyethylene reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 138(26), Article ID 50609.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermo-oxidative aging of high-density polyethylene reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, no 26, article id 50609Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanocomposites were prepared with nanotubes at 0, 1, 3, and 5 wt%. The long-term durability of the prepared materials was evaluated by thermo-oxidative aging test. Test bodies were aged at 110°C for up to 10 weeks. The nanocomposites were characterized by differential scanning calometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 13C-NMR, elongation at break, and transmission electron microscopy. The aging mainly occurred on the surface of the samples and the neat HDPE showed a strong yellowing after the aging. A strong reduction in elongation at break was seen. For neat HDPE, the elongation at break was reduced from roughly 1400–25%. When HDPE was reinforced with the nanotubes, the reduction was less dramatic

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
College of William and Mary, 2021
Keywords
aging, fullerenes, graphene, nanostructured polymers, nanotubes, Aliphatic compounds, Durability, Elongation, High density polyethylenes, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Nanocomposites, Reinforced plastics, Reinforcement, Scanning electron microscopy, Testing, Thermogravimetric analysis, 13C NMR, Calometry, Elongation at break, High density polyethylene(HDPE), Long term durability, Thermo-oxidative aging, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCN)
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-25904 (URN)10.1002/app.50609 (DOI)000618087300001 ()2-s2.0-85101454810 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-12 Created: 2021-07-12 Last updated: 2021-07-12
Mousavi, S. N., Nazarnezhad, N., Asadpour, G., Kumar Ramamoorthy, S. & Zamani, A. (2021). Ultrafine friction grinding of lignin for development of starch biocomposite films. Polymers, 13(12), Article ID 2024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrafine friction grinding of lignin for development of starch biocomposite films
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2021 (English)In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 2024Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work demonstrates the utilization of fractionalized lignin from the black liquor of soda pulping for the development of starch-lignin biocomposites. The effect of ultrafine friction grinding on lignin particle size and properties of the biocomposites was investigated. Microscopic analysis and membrane filtration confirmed the reduction of lignin particle sizes down to micro and nanoparticles during the grinding process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy confirmed the compatibility between lignin particles and starch in the composites. The composite films were characterized for chemical structure, ultraviolet blocking, mechanical, and thermal properties. Additional grinding steps led to the reduction of large lignin particles and the produced particles were uniform. The formation of 7.7 to 11.3% lignin nanoparticles was confirmed in the two steps of membrane filtration. The highest tensile strain of the biocomposite films were 5.09 MPa, which displays a 40% improvement compared to starch films. Further, thermal stability of the composite films was better than that of starch films. The results from ultraviolet transmission showed that the composite films could act as an ultraviolet barrier in packaging applications. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords
Biocomposite, Lignin, Soda black liquor, Starch, Ultrafine grinding, Composite structures, Field emission microscopes, Friction, Grinding (machining), Microfiltration, Nanoparticles, Particle size, Particle size analysis, Scanning electron microscopy, Tensile strain, Thermodynamic stability, Biocomposite films, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Grinding process, Membrane filtrations, Micro and nano-particle, Microscopic analysis, Packaging applications, Ultraviolet transmission, Composite films, Transmittance, Ultraviolet Radiation
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-25913 (URN)10.3390/polym13122024 (DOI)000667440700001 ()2-s2.0-85108715118 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-09 Created: 2021-07-09 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2325-7928

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