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Tadesse, Melkie GetnetORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0781-319X
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Tadesse, M. G., Harpa, R., Chen, Y., Wang, L., Nierstrasz, V. & Loghin, C. (2019). Assessing the comfort of functional fabrics for smart clothing using subjective evaluation. Journal of Industrial Textiles, 48(8), 1310-1326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the comfort of functional fabrics for smart clothing using subjective evaluation
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Textiles, ISSN 1528-0837, E-ISSN 1530-8057, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 1310-1326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sensory investigations of the functional textiles could be an alternative for the quality-inspection and control of the products. The purpose of this research is to use subjective evaluation technique for assessing the tactile comfort of some functional textile fabrics based on AATCC Evaluation procedure 5-2011. Blind subjective evaluations and visual subjective evaluations were performed for sensory investigation. Ten fabric-skin-contact and comfort-related sensory properties were used to evaluate the handle of the functional textile fabrics. The reliability of the sensorial data obtained by subjective tests was evaluated using statistical data analysis techniques. A minimum and maximum consensus distance recorded were 0.58 and 1.61, respectively, using a descriptive sensory panel analysis and prove the consistency and similar sensorial perception between panelists. The Pearson correlation coefficient between panelists was up to 96% and hence a strong agreement between the panelist’s judgment. The results allowed to consider the subjective evaluation using a panel of experts could be validated in the case of functional fabrics. For functional textiles, additional visual subjective evaluation should be considered to have a similar human perception in addition to blind subjective evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Sensorial comfort, bipolar attributes, subjective evaluation, handle, functional fabrics
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15310 (URN)10.1177/1528083718764906 (DOI)000459569800004 ()2-s2.0-85044038310 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Quality Inspection and evaluation of smart and functional textile fabrics by skin contact mechanics
Available from: 2018-11-13 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Tadesse, M. G., Mengistie, D. A., Chen, Y., Wang, L., Loghin, C. & Nierstrasz, V. (2019). Electrically Conductive Highly Elastic Polyamide/Lycra Fabric Treated with PEDOT:PSS and Polyurethane. Journal of Materials Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrically Conductive Highly Elastic Polyamide/Lycra Fabric Treated with PEDOT:PSS and Polyurethane
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conductive elastic fabrics are desirable in wearable electronics and related applications. Highly elastic conductive polyamide/lycra knitted fabric was prepared using intrinsically conductive polymer poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) blended with polyelectrolyte poly (styrene sulfonate) (PSS) using easily scalable coating and immersion methods. The effects of these two methods of treatments on uniformity, electromechanical property, stretchability, and durability were investigated. Different grades of waterborne polyurethanes (PU) were employed in different concentrations to improve the coating and adhesion of the PEDOT:PSS on the fabric. The immersion method gave better uniform treatment, high conductivity, and durability against stretching and cyclic tension than the coating process. The surface resistance increased from ~1.7 and ~6.4 Ω/square at 0% PU to ~3.7 and ~12.6 Ω/square at 50% PU for immersion and coating methods, respectively. The treatment methods as well as the acidic PEDOT:PSS did not affect the mechanical properties of the fabric and the fabric show high strain at break of ~650% and remain conductive until break. Finally, to assess the practical applicability of the treated fabric for wearable e-textiles, the change in surface resistance was assessed by cyclically stretching 10 times at 100% strain and washing in a domestic laundry for 10 cycles. The resistance increases only by a small amount when samples were stretched cyclically at 100% strain and the samples show good durability against washing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2019
Keywords
Polyamide/lycra, PEDOT:PSS, conductive fabric, immersion, coating
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15927 (URN)10.1007/s10853-019-03519-3 (DOI)
Projects
Quality inspection and evaluation of functional or smart textile fabric surface by skin contact mechanics
Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Tadesse, M. G. (2019). Quality Inspection and Evaluation of Smart or Functional Textile Fabric Surface by Skin Contact Mechanics. (Doctoral dissertation). Högskolan i Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality Inspection and Evaluation of Smart or Functional Textile Fabric Surface by Skin Contact Mechanics
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid progress in consuming e-textiles has made a huge uprising in the researcher’s track on the course of smart and functional textile development. Consumption of functional and smart textiles in the wearable e-textile is fetching extra eye-catching scheme owing to its lightweight property, flexibility, stretchability, and the ability to be integrated into wearable apparel. This platform makes wearable e-textile arena to be more user-friendly, but at the same time, it sets a limit to some of the real desires of the tactile comfort during skin contact. So far, many researchers have attempted to provide the consumers with a real sense of ordinary fabric hand through subjective and objective evaluation techniques. However, few or no attempts have been achieved to evaluatethe tactile comfort of functional and smart fabrics.

In this current thesis, we propose for the first time a systematic methodology to study the functional and smart textile fabric's tactile comfort properties through subjective and objective evaluation using skin contact mechanics principle. First, various functional and smart textile fabrics were produced, developed and collected using different state of the art technologies such as 3D printing, coating, inkjet printing, screen printing, incorporation of smart fiber during knitting operation. The samples produced using the above mentioned technologies were thermochromic, conductive, and photochromic type. Then, we investigated the physiological and psychological aspect with regards to the tactile comfort on the basis of visual and blind subjective evaluation for the tactile properties and interpreted utilizing different statistical techniques. Sensory experiments employing a trained panel of experts were carried outto verify the tactile handle. We followed a novel approach to verify the hypothesis obtained from different tactile attributes. From this study, we conclude that it is likely to perceive the tactile comfort properties through visual and blind scenarios.

In order to explore further, objective measurements of tactile properties of the samples were conducted using the Kawabata evaluation system (KES). Low-stress mechanical properties related to the tactile comfort of the fabrics were measured using KES. The KES result confirmed that it is credible to measure the tactile properties using objective evaluation methods to interpret the tactile properties of the samples. Sets of relevant intelligent systems such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) were implemented to interpret and analyze the subjective and objective sensory datasets and to compare the results obtained by both methods.

Abstract [sv]

Den snabba utvecklingen av e-textil för konsumtion har gett forskarna ett stort uppsving mot utvecklingen av smarta och funktionella textilier. Konsumtionen av funktionella och smarta textilier för bärbara e-textilier är extra iögonfallande tack vare egenskaperna: lättvikt, flexibilitet (böjbarhet/följsamhet), töjbarhet och för att de kan integreras i kläder. Denna plattform gör arenan för bärbara e-textilier mer användarvänlig, men sätter samtidigt en gräns för den önskvärda taktila komforten vid hudkontakt. Hittills har många forskare försökt förse konsumenterna med känslan av ett normalt tyg genom subjektiva och objektiva utvärderingsmetoder. Däremot har få eller inga försök lyckats att utvärdera den taktila komforten hos funktionella och smarta textilier.

I denna avhandling föreslås, för första gången, en systematisk metod för att studera de taktila komfortegenskaperna hos funktionella och smarta textilier genom subjektiv och objektiv utvärdering utifrån principen om mekaniken hos hudkontakt Först producerades, utvecklades och samlades olika funktionella och smarta textilvävnader med hjälp av olika toppmoderna teknologier, såsom 3D-tryckning, beläggning, bläckstråleskrivning, skärmutskrift, införlivande av smart fiber med användning av stickning. Proverna var termokroma, ledande och fotokroma. Sedan undersöktes de fysiologiska och psykologiska aspekterna beträffande taktil komfort genom visuell och blind subjektiv utvärdering. Resultatet tolkades med olika statistiska tekniker. Taktila experiment med en tränad expertpanel utfördes för att verifiera tygest taktila känsla. Vi följde ett nytt tillvägagångssätt för att verifiera hypotesen som uppkom från olika taktila attribut. Utifrån denna studie drar vi slutsatsen att det är troligt att taktila komfortegenskaper kan uppfattas genom visuella och blinda scenarier.

Ytterligare objektiva mätningar av provernas taktila egenskaper gjordes med utvärderingssystemet Kawabata (KES – Kawabata evaluation system). Mekaniska egenskaper vid låg spänning, relaterade till tygernas taktila komfort, mättes med KES. KES-resultatet bekräftade att det är tillförlitligt att mäta de taktila egenskaperna med objektiva metoder för att tolka provernas taktila egenskaper. Ett antal relevanta intelligenta system såsom ”fuzzy logic” och ”artificial neural network” (ANN) implementerades för att tolka och analysera de subjektiva och objektiva taktila dataserierna, samt för att jämföra resultaten som uppnåtts med de olika metoderna.

Abstract [ro]

Progresul rapid in ceea ce priveste consumul de e-textile a condus la dezvoltarea foarte rapidă, in lumea cercetătorilor, a domeniului textilelor inteligente și funcționalite. Consumul de textile inteligente și funcționale din domeniul e-textilelor atrage atenția în mod suplimentar asupra posesiei acestor articole, în special datorită proprietăților privind flexibilitatea, masa redusă, extensibilitatea și posibilitatea de integrare în produse ce pot fi purtate.

Această platformă permite ca scena e-textilelor purtabile să fie mai prietenoasă, dar în același timp, stabilește limite în ceea ce privește câteva din cerințele reale în ceea ce privește confortul sensorial la contactul cu pielea. Până în prezent, mulți cercetători au încercat să furnizeze consumatorilor informații privind tușeul materialelor obișnuite, utilizând tehnici de evaluare subiective și obiective. Totuși, au fost realizate foarte puține încercări de evaluare a confortului tactil al materialelor inteligente sau funcționale.

In această teză se propune, în premieră, o metodologie sistemică de studiu a proprietăților de confort sensorial al materialelor funționale și inteligente, prin evaluări subiective și obiective, utilizând principiul contactului mecanic cu pielea. În primul rând, diferite materiale funcționale și inteligente au fost produse, dezvoltate și colectate utilizând diverse tehnologii de ultima generație, cum ar fi imprimarea 3D, acoperirea, imprimarea cu jet de cerneală, imprimarea în serigrafie, încorporarea fibrei inteligente prin operațiuni de tricotat. Probele au fost termochromice, conductive și fotochromice. Apoi, au fost investigate aspecte fiziologice și psihologice referitoare la confortul senzorial, pe baza evaluării bazată pe evaluarea subiectivă, cu sau fără vizualizarea materialelor, urmate de interpretarea rezultatelor prin utilizarea diferitelor tehnici statistice. Experimentele senzoriale, desfășurate cu ajutorul unui grup de experți, au fost executate pentru verificarea sensibilității tactile. A fost folosită o nouă abordare pentru verificarea ipotezelor obținute din diferite atribute tactile. Ca urmare a acestui studiu, s-a concluzionat că este posibilă aprecierea proprietăților referitoare la confortul senzorial prin scenarii cu sau fără vizualizarea probelor.

În vederea explorării ulterioare, au fost desfășurate măsurători obiective ale proprietăților psihosenzoriale, utilizând sistemul de evaluare Kawabata (KES). Proprietățile mecanice la solicitări de mică intensitate, referitor la confortul senzorial al materialelor au fost măsurate utilizând KES. Rezultatele KES au confirmat faptul că măsurarea proprietăților senzoriale prin folosirea metodelor de evaluare obiectivă este credibilă pentru interpretarea proprietăților senzoriale ale mostrelor. Seturi de sisteme inteligente, cum ar fi fuzzy logic și rețele neuronale artificiale (ANN), au fost implementate pentru interpretarea și analiza subiectivă și obiectivă a seturilor de date și pentru compararea rezultatelor obținute prin ambele metode.

Abstract [zh]

随着电子纺织品消费的快速发展,有关纺织智能化、功能化的研究得到了普遍的关注。由于其具备重量轻、柔韧、可伸缩以及能够集成到可穿戴服装中的优点,功能化和智能化纺织品在可穿戴电子纺织品中的消费而备受瞩目。这个平台使得可穿戴的电子纺织品显示出用户友好的特点,但同时,它也在与皮肤接触过程中对触觉舒适性产生影响。迄今为止,许多研究者试图通过主、客观评价技术为消费者提供真实的织物手感信息。然而,对于评估功能性和智能织物的触觉舒适性方面的研究还比较少。本文首次采用皮肤接触力学原理,通过主观和客观评价相结合的方法,对功能性、智能化纺织品的触觉舒适性进行了系统研究。首先,使用不同的现有技术生产,开发和收集各种功能性和智能纺织品,例如3D打印,涂布,喷墨印刷,丝网印刷,使用针织操作的结合智能纤维。样品是热致变色的,导电的和光致变色的。然后,在对触觉特性进行视觉和视觉隔离主观评价的基础上,对触觉舒适性的生理和心理两个方面进行了研究,并利用不同的统计技术加以解释。利用训练有素的专家小组进行感官实验,以验证触觉手感。采用了一种新的方法来验证从不同的触觉属性获得的结果。通过本研究,我们发现,可能通过视觉和视觉隔离的场景感知触觉舒适特性。为了进行深入研究,使用川端评估系统(KES)对样品的触觉特性进行了客观测量。利用KES测试了织物触觉舒适性相关的低应力力学性能。KES结果证实了用客观评价方法来评价样品的触觉特性是可靠的。本文利用模糊逻辑和人工神经网络等相关智能系统对主客观感觉数据进行解释和分析,并对两种方法得到的结果进行比较。

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Högskolan i Borås, 2019. p. 4
Keywords
tactile comfort, expert, subjective evalaution, objective evalaution, smart fabric, functional fabric, skin contact, KES, sensory evalaution, sensory perception
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15956 (URN)978-91-88838-27-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-10, The Faculty of Textiles-Leather and Industrial Management, Iasi, Romania, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Note

Disputationen startar kl. 09:00 svensk tid och kan följas via länk i sal T369, Högskolan i Borås

Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved
Tadesse, M. G., Chen, Y., Wang, L., Nierstrasz, V. & Loghin, C. (2019). Tactile Comfort Prediction of Functional Fabrics from Instrumental Data Using Intelligence Systems. Fibers And Polymers, 20(1), 199-209
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tactile Comfort Prediction of Functional Fabrics from Instrumental Data Using Intelligence Systems
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2019 (English)In: Fibers And Polymers, ISSN 1229-9197, E-ISSN 1875-0052, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 199-209Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Subjective and objective evaluations of the handle of textile materials are very important to describe its tactile comfort for next-to-skin goods. In this paper, the applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modeling approaches for the prediction of the psychological perceptions of functional fabrics from mechanical properties were investigated. Six distinct functional fabrics were evaluated using human subjects for their tactile score and total hand values (THV) using tactile and comfort-based fabric touch attributes. Then, the measurement of mechanical properties of the same set of samples using KES-FB was performed. The RMSE values for ANN and ANFIS predictions were 0.014 and 0.0122 and are extremely lower than the variations of the perception scores of 0.644 and 0.85 forANN and ANFIS, respectively with fewer prediction errors. The observed results indicated that the predicted tactile score and are almost very close to the actual output obtained using human judgment. Fabric objective measurement-technology, therefore, provides reliable measurement approaches for functional fabric quality inspection, control, and design specification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Korea: Springer, 2019
Keywords
ANFIS, ANN, Mechanical properties, Total hand value, Tactile comfort
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15829 (URN)10.1007/s12221-019-8301-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061661992 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Quality inspection and evaluation of functional or smart textile fabric surface by skin contact mechanics
Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Tadesse, M. G., Nierstrasz, V. & Yu, J. (2018). Effect of chemical concentration on the rheology of inkjet conductive inks. In: : . Paper presented at 18th World Textile Conference of Autex, Istanbul, 20-22 June, 2018.. Istanbul
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of chemical concentration on the rheology of inkjet conductive inks
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Viscosity and surface tension are the fundamental rheological property of an ink for inkjet printing. In this work, we optimized the viscosity and surface tension of inkjet inks by varying the concentration of glycerol with water, PEDOT-PSS with glycerol and water, finally by adding the surfactant. The surface resistance of the sample was characterized by four-probe measurement principle. The change in volume of PEDOT-PSS in water, as well as the change in weight of glycerol in water has got a great influence on the viscosity on both temperature dependence and shear dependence behaviour of the ink solution. The surface tension of the solution changed from 37 to 28mN/m due to the addition of Triton. Varying the volume of PEDOT-PSS and the volume of glycerol in water has a great influence on the viscosity of the ink solution for inkjet printing. Viscosity drops from 12.5 to 9.5 mPa s with the addition of Triton at 25 oC. The PEDOT-PSS solution was found to be temperature dependence but not shear dependence as it is a Newtonian fluid. The sample was used to connect the light emitting diode (LED), and hence the electrical conductivity, with a surface resistance of 0.158 KΩ/square, was sufficient enough to give transfer current for LED lamp. The rheology of the inkjet ink is very critical for the successful droplet formation of the inkjet printing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Istanbul: , 2018
Keywords
shear rate, surface tension, surfactant, viscosity
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14990 (URN)
Conference
18th World Textile Conference of Autex, Istanbul, 20-22 June, 2018.
Projects
Quality inspection and evaluation of functional or smart textile fabric surface by skin contact mechanics
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Tadesse, M. G. & Nierstrasz, V. (2018). Tactile Comfort Evaluation of Conductive Knitted FabricUsing KES-FB. In: : . Paper presented at Euroinvent ICIR 2018, Iasi, Romania, May 17-19, 2018. (pp. 1-7). Institute of Physics (IOP), 374, Article ID 012056.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tactile Comfort Evaluation of Conductive Knitted FabricUsing KES-FB
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tactile comfort has a strong relation with low-stress mechanical properties of textilefabrics having close contact with the human skin. In this work, we attempt to analyse the lowstressmechanical properties of the functional knitted fabric obtained using Kawabata’s fabricevaluation system (KES-FB). The measured results were compared with those of the controlledpolyester fabric. The bending ability of the product increased from 0.2448 to 0.8010gf.cm2/cmand hence the rigidity influenced when copper yarn is introduced. However, thecompressibility increased from 0.173 to 0.449gf.cm/cm2 and hence the compressibility slightlyboosted. The surface roughness (SMD) highly increased from 7.196 to 14.258 μm. It wasobserved that the incorporation of conductive copper yarn during knitting brought an effect onthe tactile comfort of the fabrics and reduced by 69%. The overall comfort properties of theconductive textile fabric were reduced due to the introduction of copper yarn during knittingoperations. Focus should be given when functional fabric developed which has close contact tothe human skin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2018
Series
Material Science and Engineering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14989 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/374/1/012056 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049181278 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Euroinvent ICIR 2018, Iasi, Romania, May 17-19, 2018.
Projects
Quality inspection and evaluation of functional or smart textile fabric surface by skin contact mechanics
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Tadesse, M. G., Nierstrasz, V., Dumitrescu, D., Loghin, C., Chen, Y. & Wang, L. (2017). 3D Printing of NinjaFlex Filament onto PEDOT:PSS-CoatedTextile Fabrics for Electroluminescence Applications. Journal of Electronic Materials, 47(3), 2082-2092, Article ID 6015-6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Printing of NinjaFlex Filament onto PEDOT:PSS-CoatedTextile Fabrics for Electroluminescence Applications
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 2082-2092, article id 6015-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electroluminescence (EL) is the property of a semiconductor material pertaining to emitting light in response to an electrical current or a strong electric field. The purpose of this paper is to develop a flexible and lightweight EL device. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement was taken to observe the thermal degradation behavior of NinjaFlex. Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) with ethylene glycol (EG) was coated onto polyester fabric where NinjaFlex was placed onto the coated fabric using three-dimensional (3D) printing and phosphor paste and BendLay filament were coated 3D-printed subsequently. Adhesion strength and flexibility of the 3D-printed NinjaFlex on textile fabrics were investigated. The TGA results of the NinjaFlex depicts that no weight loss was observed up to 150°C. Highly conductive with a surface resistance value of 8.5 ohms/sq., and uniform surface appearance of coated fabric were obtained as measured and observed by using four-probe and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively at 60% PEDOT:PSS. The results of the adhesion test showed that peel strengths of 4160, 3840 N/m were recorded for polyester and cotton specimens, respectively. No weight loss was recorded following three washing cycles of NinjaFlex. The bending lengths were increased by only a factor of 0.082 and 0.577 for polyester and cotton samples at 0.1 mm thickness, respectively; which remains sufficiently flexible to be integrated into textiles. The prototype device emitted light with a 12 V alternating current (AC) power supply. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
NinjaFlex, adhesion test, 3D printing, electroluminescence, TGA, emitter
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-13282 (URN)10.1007/s11664-017-6015-6 (DOI)000424341700039 ()2-s2.0-85038380662 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Quality inspection and evaluation of functional or smart textile fabric surface by skin contact mechanics.
Available from: 2017-12-26 Created: 2017-12-26 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Tadesse, M. G. & Nierstrasz, V. (2017). Effect of liquid immersion of PEDOT:PSS-coated polyester fabric on surface resistance and wettability. Smart materials and structures (Print), 26, 1-7, Article ID 065016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of liquid immersion of PEDOT:PSS-coated polyester fabric on surface resistance and wettability
2017 (English)In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 26, p. 1-7, article id 065016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coating of textile fabrics with poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is one of the methods used for obtaining functional or smart applications. In this work, we prepared PEDOT:PSS polymer with certain additives such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), methanol (MeOH), and ethylene glycol (EG) on polyester fabric substrates by a simple immersion process. Surface resistance was measured and analyzed with analysis of variance to determine the coating parameters at 95% confidence level. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study of the samples were performed. Contact angle and washing fastness measurements were conducted, to observe the wettability and washing fastness of the samples, respectively. Surface resistance values were decreased by a factor of 100, due to conductive enhancers. As the immersion time and temperature condition varies, surface resistance showed no difference, statistically. FTIR analysis supports the idea that the mechanism responsible for the conductivity enhancement is the partial replacement of PSS from PEDOT chain by forming a hydrogen bond with hydroxyl ion (OH) of the conductive enhancers. A SEM images showed that PEDOT:PSS is well distributed to the surface of the fabrics. Contact angle measurements showed morphology change in the samples. The conductivity was reasonably stable after 10 washing cycles. Altogether, an effective simple immersion of coated polyester fabric is presented to achieve functional textiles that offer a broad range of possible applications.

Coating of textile fabrics with poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is one of the methods used for obtaining functional or smart applications. In this work, we prepared PEDOT:PSS polymer with certain additives such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), methanol (MeOH), and ethylene glycol (EG) on polyester fabric substrates by a simple immersion process. Surface resistance was measured and analyzed with analysis of variance to determine the coating parameters at 95% confidence level. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study of the samples were performed. Contact angle and washing fastness measurements were conducted, to observe the wettability and washing fastness of the samples, respectively. Surface resistance values were decreased by a factor of 100, due to conductive enhancers. As the immersion time and temperature condition varies, surface resistance showed no difference, statistically. FTIR analysis supports the idea that the mechanism responsible for the conductivity enhancement is the partial replacement of PSS from PEDOT chain by forming a hydrogen bond with hydroxyl ion (OH) of the conductive enhancers. A SEM images showed that PEDOT:PSS is well distributed to the surface of the fabrics. Contact angle measurements showed morphology change in the samples. The conductivity was reasonably stable after 10 washing cycles. Altogether, an effective simple immersion of coated polyester fabric is presented to achieve functional textiles that offer a broad range of possible applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Institute of Physics (IOP), 2017
Keywords
immersion, surface resistance, contact angle, polyethylene glycol, methanol
National Category
Materials Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12169 (URN)10.1088/1361-665X/aa6f25 (DOI)000401631700005 ()2-s2.0-85019573820 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Quality inspection and evaluation of functional or smart textile fabric surface by skin contact mechanics
Funder
A multiscale, cross‐disciplinary approach to the study of climate change effect on ecosystem services and biodiversity
Available from: 2017-06-03 Created: 2017-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-15Bibliographically approved
Tadesse, M. G., Nierstrasz, V., Desalegn Alemu, M., Müller, C., Loghin, M. C., Chen, Y. & Wang, L. (2017). Electromechanical properties of polyamide/lycra fabric treated with PEDOT:PSS. In: Electromechanical properties of polyamide/lycra fabric treated with PEDOT:PSS: . Paper presented at 17th World Textile Conference "AUTEX2017", Corfu Greece, May 29-31, 2017 (pp. 072025). Institute of Physics (IOP), 254
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electromechanical properties of polyamide/lycra fabric treated with PEDOT:PSS
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2017 (English)In: Electromechanical properties of polyamide/lycra fabric treated with PEDOT:PSS, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2017, Vol. 254, p. 072025-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One of the challenges in smart textiles is to develop suitable multifunctional materials that can address simultaneously several characteristics such as durability, stretchability, lightweight, and conductivity. Conductive polymers which showed success in different technological fields like polymer solar cells and light emitting diodes are promising in many smart textile applications. In this work, we treated a common polyamide/lycra knitted fabric with PEDOT:PSS for stretchable e-textiles. PEDOT:PSS, with DMSO as a conductivity enhancer and different ratios of water-based polyurethane dispersions as a binder, was applied to the fabric with simple immersion and coating applications. The effect of different application methods and binder ratio on the surface resistance of the fabric was monitored with four point probe electrical surface resistance measurement systems. Samples prepared by immersion technique are more uniform and have higher conductivity than those prepared by a coating technique. SEM images showed that PEDOT:PSS is incorporated into the structure in the immersion method while in the coating it is majorly present on the surface of the fabric. The tensile measurement showed that the acidic PEDOT:PSS and polyurethane dispersion coating has no adverse effect on the tensile strength of the fabric. The coated samples can be stretched up to 700% while still reasonably conductive. The resistance increases only by a small amount when samples were stretched cyclically by stretching 100%. Generally, samples prepared by the immersion method maintained better conductivity while stretching than those by a coating method. The washing fastness of the samples was also assessed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2017
Keywords
Polyamide/lycra, PEDOT:PSS, stretchable conductive fabric, immersion, coating.
National Category
Materials Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12235 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/254/7/072025 (DOI)000417214900085 ()2-s2.0-85035006833 (Scopus ID)
Conference
17th World Textile Conference "AUTEX2017", Corfu Greece, May 29-31, 2017
Projects
Quality inspection and evaluation of functional or smart textile fabric surface by skin contact mechanics.
Available from: 2017-06-19 Created: 2017-06-19 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Nierstrasz, V., Tadesse, M. G., Harpa, R., Loghin, C., Chen, Y. & Wang, L. (2017). SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL TEXTILE FABRICS. In: ITMC2017 - International Conference on Intelligent Textiles and Mass Customization: . Paper presented at ITMC2017 - International Conference on Intelligent Textiles and Mass Customization, Gent Belgium, October 16-18, 2017 (pp. 1-2).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL TEXTILE FABRICS
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2017 (English)In: ITMC2017 - International Conference on Intelligent Textiles and Mass Customization, 2017, p. 1-2Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Keywords
smart textile, functional textile, subjective evaluation, haptics, hand
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12880 (URN)
Conference
ITMC2017 - International Conference on Intelligent Textiles and Mass Customization, Gent Belgium, October 16-18, 2017
Projects
SMDTex
Available from: 2017-10-19 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0781-319X

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