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Mahon, K., Francisco, S., Kaukko, M., Kemmis, S., Langelotz, L. & Sjølie, E. (2023). Pedagogical practice and professionalism in higher education – A cross-national study. In: : . Paper presented at HERDSA Conference, Brisbane, Australia, July.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedagogical practice and professionalism in higher education – A cross-national study
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31302 (URN)
Conference
HERDSA Conference, Brisbane, Australia, July
Available from: 2024-01-12 Created: 2024-01-12 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Langelotz, L., Norlund, A. & Levinsson, M. (2022). Continuing Professional Development – a Threat to Teacher Professionalism. In: AERA annual meeting San Diego 21-26 April 2022: Cultivating Equitable Education Systems for the 21st Century. Paper presented at AERA conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuing Professional Development – a Threat to Teacher Professionalism
2022 (English)In: AERA annual meeting San Diego 21-26 April 2022: Cultivating Equitable Education Systems for the 21st Century, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper asks following burning question: Where is a critical know-whyperspective on education, in teachers’ continuing professional development(CPD)? Point of departure is the first result of an ongoing (2020-2023)government funded research project in Sweden. A follow-the-money approachwas used to collect data. 1000 invoices, from three Swedish municipalities,were inductively analyzed and categorized. The results exposed how ethicalissues, climate crises, and social (in)justice are almost absent in the CPDcontentas is critical know-why professional knowledge. Framed by the notionof professionalism, we here further explore one of the municipalities anddiscuss fast policies imprint on local sites, the lack of cultivating know-whyknowledge, and how CPD might be a threat to teachers’ professionalism.

Series
AERA Conference program online ; online
Keywords
teachers continuing professional development, following-the-money, invoices, lack of know-why knowledge
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29164 (URN)
Conference
AERA conference
Projects
Fakturan, fortbildningen och forskningen
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 201903828
Available from: 2023-01-03 Created: 2023-01-03 Last updated: 2023-01-04Bibliographically approved
Langelotz, L., Levinsson, M. & Norlund, A. (2022). How is teacher professionalism in Sweden shaped in an era of marketisation of teachers’ continuing professional development?. In: Transforming the Future of Education: the Role of Reserach: AARE 2022 Conference in Adelaide 27/11-1/12. Paper presented at AARE Conference 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How is teacher professionalism in Sweden shaped in an era of marketisation of teachers’ continuing professional development?
2022 (English)In: Transforming the Future of Education: the Role of Reserach: AARE 2022 Conference in Adelaide 27/11-1/12, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is an international body of knowledge about teacher development in general as well as the potential problems with commercial actors in the CPD-field. Less is known about the CPD-content and the impact it has on teachers’ professionalism.  

The aim of this paper is to investigate what types of teacher professionalism that a CPD-field dominated by commercial actors shape in Sweden. The starting point is an analysis of 679 invoices and the content (knowledge) offered on the CPD-market, and purchased under two years. The result is part of an ongoing research project funded by the Swedish Research Council (2020-2023).

679 invoices from 73 schools were collected. The coding built on the extraction of information from the total set of invoices and on entering data into a statistic program file (SPSS) consisting of a multitude of variables – both deductively and inductively set. 

A practice-ecological ontology, the theory of practice architectures (TPA) is adopted, to explore how CPD-practices shape teacher practices and teacher professionalism. CPD concerns changing peoples’ sayings-doings-relatings i.e. practices (like teaching). To analyse how the CPD-content shape Swedish teachers, teacher professionalism is here conceptualized as three constituent components: behavioural, attitudinal, and intellectual. These components are previously described as overlapping but analytically seperable. 

 The behavioural change, dominate. Teachers are supposed to develop various teaching skills related to for example computer-programs, to diagnose students and to meet students' reading-, mathematics- or communication- difficulties.  This CPD is part of a world-wide edu-tech-business.  

The attitudinal component, where teachers’ attitudes are (to be) modified, is indeed visible in the data. Costs concern kick- off/summing-up-the-year activities, including conference-facilities, food, etc. The principal, teachers or the school health group are engaged in the content delivered. Teacher-collaboration, student-motivation or school-development etc. is focussed. Another CPD-content, overlapping attidunal and behavioural changes. Teachers are supposed to change their behaviour in relation to “problematic student behaviour” and diagnoses like ADHD. The intellectual component is not as frequent. Subject-specific CPD in Mathematics or Second Language Teaching is , however, purschased.  

Next step in the project is teacher- and principal-interviews to investigate the experiences of and motives for the CPD purchased and, to get hold of the CPD that take place without generating any fees. and to trace the arangments that enable and/or constrain CPD-practices. The study is limited to three (of 278) municipalities in Sweden, both national and international studies would benefit the knowledge development

 

Keywords
teacher professionalism, invoices, continuing professional development (CPD), CPD market
National Category
Pedagogical Work Pedagogy
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29163 (URN)
Conference
AARE Conference 2022
Projects
Fakturan, fortbildningen och forskningen
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 201903828
Available from: 2023-01-03 Created: 2023-01-03 Last updated: 2023-01-04Bibliographically approved
Levinsson, M., Norlund, A. & Langelotz, L. (2022). Innehåll och pedagogiska diskurser på lärares kompetensutvecklingsmarknad: en studie av insatser som genererar fakturor.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innehåll och pedagogiska diskurser på lärares kompetensutvecklingsmarknad: en studie av insatser som genererar fakturor
2022 (Swedish)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med den här artikeln är att bidra med fördjupad kunskap om innehållet i lärares kompetensutveckling i en decentraliserad utbildningssektor. Specifikt fokus riktas mot hur innehållet i denna kompetensutveckling relaterar till lärares undervisningsuppdrag att utveckla såväl kunskaper som värderingar hos elever. Artikeln tar sin utgångspunkt 679 kompetensutvecklingsfakturor från tre socio-ekonomiskt olika kommuner i Sverige. Teoretiskt är studien baserad i Bernsteins fenomen pedagogisk diskurs, som i sin tur bidrar med de analytiska begreppen instruktionell och regulativ diskurs vilka har styrt analysen av fakturamaterialet. Resultatet åskådliggör i vilken grad kompetensutvecklingsinnehållet orienteras mot ämneskunskaper och generella kompetenser (instruktionell diskurs) respektive det som rör elevers värderingar (regulativ diskurs). Vidare illustrerar resultatet flera samband mellan kompetensutvecklingens diskursiva inriktning, skolform (grundskola och gymnasium) och typ av kompetensutvecklingsaktör. Analysen visar också att innehållet i lärares kompetensutveckling karaktäriseras av att lärare uppmuntras att inta en intraindividuell förändringsambition i relation till sina elever och inte av en ambition om intergruppförändring, det vill säga med syfte att utjämna skillnader mellan sociologiskt definierade grupper.

Keywords
Lärares kompetensutveckling, marknad, instruktionell och regulativ diskurs, Bernstein
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29125 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, dnr 2019-03828
Available from: 2022-12-13 Created: 2022-12-13 Last updated: 2023-01-17Bibliographically approved
Centerwall, U. & Langelotz, L. (2022). Norm Critical Projects in Swedish School Librarian Practices. Nordic Journal of Library and Information Studies, 3(2), 16-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Norm Critical Projects in Swedish School Librarian Practices
2022 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Library and Information Studies, E-ISSN 2597-0593, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 16-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we explore the practices of school librarians with a specific focus on norm critical pedagogy, a distinctively Scandinavian concept with a basis in critical pedagogies. In Sweden, norm critique is a practice, a pedagogy and a discourse. Our article offers examples of school librarian practices that deal with issues of sexuality and gender conceptualized in their work with LGBTQ+ literature from a norm critical perspective. We analysed semi-structured interviews with eight librarians in four secondary and upper secondary schools through the lens of the theory of practice architectures (Kemmis & Grootenboer, 2008). Our findings demonstrate how the norm critical practices of school librarians are enabled and constrained by arrangements within the school site, as well as by management, colleagues and professional learning practices. The projects carried out by school librarians that employ norm critical perspectives are both strengthened and challenged by collaboration with principals and other education professionals at the school site. When teachers challenge the views of librarians, the latter have to re-think and re-negotiate normative positions. Hence, norm critical thinking is not only taught but also practiced in the everyday work in school libraries. This article argues that these norm critical perspectives and the librarians’ practices represent important contributions to the democratic assignment of Swedish schools.

Keywords
critical pedagogy, education, democracy, gender, LGBTQ+, Scandinavia, norm critique, sexuality, school librarian, Sweden, theory of practice architectures
National Category
Information Studies
Research subject
Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29174 (URN)10.7146/njlis.v3i2.132277 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-01-03 Created: 2023-01-03 Last updated: 2023-01-17Bibliographically approved
Langelotz, L. & Mahon, K. (2022). Rapid digitalisation of higher education: leadership of teaching and learning in times of crises. In: : . Paper presented at Australia Association for Research in Education, Nov 27-Dec 1, 2022, Adelaide, Australia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid digitalisation of higher education: leadership of teaching and learning in times of crises
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Rapid digitalisation of higher education: leadership of teaching and learning in times of crises.

Since 2020, the academic community in higher education has been rapidly shifted into online environments due to the pandemic COVID-19. In Sweden, this has had several impacts on health care and teacher education, programs that traditionally (mainly) were delivered face-to-face before the pandemic. The overall aim of the project is to investigate how educational leadership practices are being reshaped/are reshaping teaching and learning practices in Swedish HE and with what academic and social consequences at a time of crisis and rapid digital transformation. The research design is framed by practice theory, which treats practices as the primary subject of analysis in the study of human relations. An early phase of the project involved interviews with academic leaders and teaching staff in one Swedish University at the beginning of the pandemic, and a review of literature related to leading teaching and learning in higher education. This will be followed up with interactive shadowing of leaders in their daily interactions with university teachers, students, and other stakeholders in three Swedish Universities. The study will document leadership practices as they happen and particularly how they affect and are affected by teaching practices and what students experience, do, and learn. Student and educator focus-group interviews will also be conducted to capture teacher and student perspectives. Analysis will be informed by the theory of practice architectures.

Analysis of findings from the initial phase has highlighted three main themes which have important implications for leadership practices related to teaching and learning in the fields of teacher education and health care education, but also possibly other professional education fields. They concern the ways in which the shift to online education has affected possibilities for, and highlighted the importance of, spontaneity, authentic relationships, and embodied interactions. Meanwhile, the findings of the literature review have highlighted how much is assumed, but how little is actually known about, the relationship between what leaders do in their everyday work and student experiences. These findings point to the importance of future studies that empirically explore, at an everyday practice level, the complexities and challenges for leadership of working in online environments, and whether and how what leaders do and do not do concretely affects student learning and the student experience.

Keywords
leadership; higher education; digitalisation; leading learning; educational leadership
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29294 (URN)
Conference
Australia Association for Research in Education, Nov 27-Dec 1, 2022, Adelaide, Australia
Available from: 2023-01-15 Created: 2023-01-15 Last updated: 2023-01-17Bibliographically approved
Norlund, A., Levinsson, M. & Langelotz, L. (2022). Unpacking the Special Educational Needs Industry: Voices from Invoices. In: : . Paper presented at ECER, Yerevan, Armenien, augusti 2022. Education in a Changing World: The impact of global realities on the prospects and experiences of educational research.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unpacking the Special Educational Needs Industry: Voices from Invoices
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 Already ten years ago Tomlinson (2012) spoke of the “rise of the expanded and expensive SEN [Special Educational Needs] industry”(p. 75). In this paper, we explore the SEN industry on a continuing professional development (CPD) market for teachers in Sweden. This market seems to well meet the exaggerated importance of teachers’ CPD. Such an exaggeration is a highly globalized phenomenon and thus, we argue, of high significance to the research community (cf Kennedy, 2014). International studies reveal clear evidence of an increasing state-encouraged marketization and privatisation of teacher CPD. Characteristic of this development is that companies establish and profile themselves on the market by selling solutions and improvements aligned with current policy discourses – a dimension of the ongoing privatisation of the education sector that Ball (2009) calls “organisational recalibration” (p. 84).

A recent estimation is that about 25 000 commercial actors operate within the Swedish education sector (It-pedagogen, 2021) and previous research exemplifies how some of these “edupreneurs” offer CPD packages to schools and teachers, which in many cases can be linked to policy trends (Forsberg & Wermke, 2012; Player-Koro & Beach, 2017). Over the past decade, there has been a flood of governmental initiatives in Sweden offering various forms of professional development programs for teachers – as for example the ‘Special Educator Initiative’ – and commercial actors seem to pick up the discourses of these policy reforms and develop their businesses accordingly (Ideland et al., 2020; Levinsson & Norlund, 2018). Ideland et al. (2020) illustrate “how companies enact spaces of business possibilities made up through discourses of ‘schools in crisis’ and policy reforms” (p. 85). However, what characterizes dicsourses in the content descriptions of CPD offered at a commersialised CPD-market – and how this might influence SEN-oriented practices – needs further investigation. 

In this paper, we present results from the ongoing project Following invoices – finding professional learning (the Invoice Project), funded by the Swedish Research Council. The overall aim in the project is to deepen the understanding of teacher learning, in times when different stakeholders try to control and impact on education and teachers’ work.  

We started the project by “following the money” (Ball, 2012) in three municipalities in Sweden and analyzed a multitude of invoices concerning teachers’ professional development. One of the results, so far, is the fact that the CPD market in Sweden to great extent offers content with a SEN focus. 37 % of the collected invoices relate to SEN content. 

The aim of this paper is to unpack prevalent SEN-oriented discourses on the CPD market and to discuss the possible impact these may have on various educational practices, such as professional learning and teaching practices. From a practice-oriented perspective educational practices are interdependent; they enable and constrain each other mutuallly in the ‘education complex’ (e.g., Kemmis et al., 2012; Mahon et al., 2020). 

Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used

In the overall study - the Invoice Project – 674 invoices from 2018 and 2019, were collected from the CPD accounts for elementary and upper secondary school teachers in three Swedish municipalities (municipal invoices are subject to the principal of openness in the Swedish constitution). The selected municipalities were chosen to reflect rural and urban areas with varying socioeconomic characteristics. 

A first analysis of the invoices revealed that a majority of the invoices (37 %) had a SEN-oriented content. The criterion for the categorization was that the CPD title and/or the content description included not only the notion of Special Needs Education but also phenomena such as ‘dyslexia’, ‘dyscalculia’, ‘ADHD’, ‘gifted children and ´neuropsychiatric disorders’.

The data production and analytical work for this paper included the following steps:

1. Extending information. The collected invoices regarding SEN-oriented CPD did not always supply the information needed to address the purpose of and the questions posed in this paper. Therefore, we made further Internet searches and/or contacted schools and/or CPD providers via email or phone to obtain the information required. 

2. Extracting and coding. Information was extracted from the invoices and coded into an SPSS program file comprising a number of variables including SEN-oriented CPD. We distributed all SEN invoices evenly among the three of us to organise the work and perform the first step of the coding process in individual SPSS files based on the same variable structure. We continuously engaged in formal and informal coding sessions to construct subcategories of SEN-oriented CPD. 14 different SEN categories were developed in this process. The data in the individual files were later transferred into a joint SPSS file for analysis.

3. Mapping and analysing.  We used descriptive statistics, mainly frequencies and relative frequencies, computed in the SPSS program to explore the distribution of invoices, costs and actors over SEN related CPD contents. Frequencies and relative frequencies were mapped via bar charts and tables to illustrate and summarize the characteristics of SEN-oriented CPD in the studied municipalities. 

4. Identifying discourses. We identified tentative discourses in the CPD actors’ content descriptions collected from our Internet searches. To deepen the analyses, we exploited our joint experiences in working with educational discourses in a Faircloughian and Foucauldian critical sense (see Langelotz 2014; 2017a; 2017b; Norlund, 2009; 2021; Norlund & Levinsson 2018).

Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings

The findings show a number of prevalent discourses, of which we will present a few during our presentation this paper. These discourses seem, in turn, to be embedded within an umbrella discourse of solutionism. The discourse of solutionism starts with a well-defined (and often simplified) problem to which the CPD offers a solution (cf. Ideland et al., 2020).

We will discuss the potential consequences in relation to each practice in the education complex (practices of teaching, learning, researching, leading and CPD) respectively. 

References

Ball, S. (2009). Privatising education, privatising education policy, privatising educational research: network governance and the ‘competition state’. Journal of Education Policy, 24(1), 83-99. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930802419474

Ball, S. (2012). Show me the money! Neoliberalism at work in education. Forum, 54(1), 23-27.

Forsberg, E. & Wermke, W. (2012). Knowledge soursces and autonomy: German and Swedisch teachers’ continuing professional development of assessment knowledge. Professional Development in Education, 38(5), 741-758. 

Ideland, M., Jobér, A., & Axelsson, T. (2020). Problem solved! How eduprenuers enact school crises as business possibilities. European Educational Research Journal, 20(1) 83–101.

Kennedy, A. (2014). Understanding continuing professional development: the need for theory to impact on policy and practice. Professional Development in Education, 40(5), 688-697.

Kemmis, S., Edwards-Groves, C., & Wilkinson, J. (2012). Ecologies of practices. In P. Hager, A. Lee, and A. Reich (EDs.), Practice-Theory Perspectives on Professional Learning, 33–49. Dordrecht: Springer. 

Langelotz, L. (2014). Vad gör en skicklig lärare? En studie om kollegial handledning som utvecklingspraktik.(Doctoral thesis, Gothenburg Studies in Educational Sciences, 348). Göteborg: Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

Langelotz, L. (2017a). Kollegialt lärande i praktiken. Kompetensutveckling eller kollektiv korrigering? [Collegial Learning in Practice: Professional Learning or Collective Correction?]. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur.

Langelotz, L. (2017b).  Collegial mentoring for professional development. In K.  Mahon, S. Kemmis, S. Fransisco & Lloyd, A. (Eds.) Exploring educational practices through the lens of practice architectures. Singapore: Springer. 

Levinsson, M., & Norlund, A. (2018). En samtida diskurs om hjärnans betydelse för undervisning och lärande: Kritisk analys av artiklar i lärarfackliga tidskrifter. Utbildning & Lärande, 12(1), s. 7-25.

Mahon, K., Edwards-Groves, C., Fransisco, S., & Kauko, M. (2020). Pedagogy, Education and Praxis in Critical Times. Singapore: Springer 

Norlund, A. (2009). Kritisk sakprosaläsning i gymnasieskolan. Didaktiska perspektiv på läroböcker, lärare och nationella prov. Göteborg Studies in Educational Sciences 273. Göteborg. Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. 

Norlund, A. (2020). Suggestopedi som språkdidaktiskt verktyg i vuxenutbildning - en kritisk textanalys. Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, 25(2–3), 7–25.

Player-Koro, C., & Beach, D. (2017). The influence of Private Actors on the Education of Teachers in Sweden. A Networked Ethnography Study of Education Policy Mobility. Acta Pedagogica Vilnesia, 39. 

Tomlinson, S. (2012). The irresistible rise of the SEN industry. Oxford Review of Education 38(3), 267-286.

Keywords
continuing professional development, invoices
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29113 (URN)
Conference
ECER, Yerevan, Armenien, augusti 2022. Education in a Changing World: The impact of global realities on the prospects and experiences of educational research
Projects
Fakturan. fortbildningen och forskningen
Funder
Swedish Research Council, dnr 2019-03828
Available from: 2022-12-13 Created: 2022-12-13 Last updated: 2023-01-17Bibliographically approved
Levinsson, M., Langelotz, L. & Löfstedt, M. (Eds.). (2021). Didaktisk dialog i högre utbildning (1ed.). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Didaktisk dialog i högre utbildning
2021 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021. p. 188 Edition: 1
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26242 (URN)9789144139029 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-08-17 Created: 2021-08-17 Last updated: 2021-08-18Bibliographically approved
Langelotz, L., Levinsson, M. & Löfstedt, M. (2021). Epilog – Didaktisk dialog i praktiken. In: Levinsson M., Langelotz, L. & Löfstedt, M. (Ed.), Didaktisk dialog i högre utbildning: (pp. 183-187). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epilog – Didaktisk dialog i praktiken
2021 (Swedish)In: Didaktisk dialog i högre utbildning / [ed] Levinsson M., Langelotz, L. & Löfstedt, M., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, p. 183-187Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-26244 (URN)9789144139029 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-08-17 Created: 2021-08-17 Last updated: 2022-01-14Bibliographically approved
Mahon, K. & Langelotz, L. (Eds.). (2021). From ‘intercultural-washing’ to meaningful intercultural education: Revisiting higher education practice (Special issue). Borås: University of Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From ‘intercultural-washing’ to meaningful intercultural education: Revisiting higher education practice (Special issue)
2021 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: University of Borås, 2021. p. 203
Keywords
critical intercultural education; higher education; intercultural communication; interculturality; intercultural education
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Teacher Education and Education Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27179 (URN)10.47989/kpdc.vol3.2.2021 (DOI)
Note

Guest Editors: Mélodine Sommier, Malgorzata Lahti, and Anssi Roiha

Handling Editors: Kathleen Mahon and Lill Langelotz

Available from: 2022-01-13 Created: 2022-01-13 Last updated: 2022-01-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1424-6063

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