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Paras, M. K., Wang, L., Chen, Y., Curteza, A., Pal, R. & Ekwall, D. (2018). A Sustainable Application Based on Grouping Genetic Algorithm for Modularized Redesign Model in Apparel Reverse Supply Chain. Sustainability, 10(9), Article ID 3013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Sustainable Application Based on Grouping Genetic Algorithm for Modularized Redesign Model in Apparel Reverse Supply Chain
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2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 3013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The scarcity of natural resources and the problem of pollution have initiated the need for extending the life and use of existing products. The concept of the reverse supply chain provides an opportunity to recover value from discarded products. The potential for recovery and the improvement of value in the reverse supply chain of apparel has been barely studied. In this research, a novel modularized redesign model is developed and applied to the garment redesign process. The concept of modularization is used to extract parts from the end-of-use or end-of-life of products. The extracted parts are reassembled or reconstructed with the help of a proposed group genetic algorithm by using domain and industry-specific knowledge. Design fitness is calculated to achieve the optimal redesign. Subsequently, the practical relevance of the model is investigated with the help of an industrial case in Sweden. The case study finding reveals that the proposed method and model to calculate the design fitness could simplify the redesign process. The design fitness calculation is illustrated with the example of a polo t-shirt. The redesigned system-based modularization is in accordance with the practical situations because of its flexibility and viability to formulate redesign decisions. The grouping genetic algorithm could enable fast redesign decisions for designers.

Keywords
reuse design, upcycling, modularization, garment industry, sustainability
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15090 (URN)10.3390/su10093013 (DOI)000446770200056 ()2-s2.0-85052309286 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Paras, M. K., Ekwall, D., Pal, R., Curteza, A., Chen, Y. & Wang, L. (2018). An Exploratory Study of Swedish Charities to Develop a Model for the Reuse-Based Clothing Value Chain. Sustainability, 10(4), Article ID 1176.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Exploratory Study of Swedish Charities to Develop a Model for the Reuse-Based Clothing Value Chain
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2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 1176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present paper aims to explore the current clothes reuse business in order to develop a charity-driven model for the reuse-based clothing value chain. An exploratory study was carried out in Sweden to understand the business flow of clothes reuse. This study builds on the insights gained from the multiple charities involved in the reuse-based clothing value chain. Semi-structured interviews along with direct and participatory observation were used for data collection. In the current study of Swedish charities, the founders and senior managers of the organizations were interviewed. This paper provides several insights in the form of propositions and a model related to different drivers of the reuse-based clothing value chain. In this model, business factors (system, legislation, and awareness), product factors (design, quality, and price), and consumer attitude as donor/buyer are found to be key drivers. Product design, quality, and price depend upon clothes brand, construction, and material, which are collectively important for the sale of used products. In the future, researchers are encouraged to test the present set of propositions and the proposed model across different cultural settings. The model can serve as a framework for practitioners and will be helpful for designing business strategies based on the different factors identified in this study.

Keywords
reverse value chain, apparel supply chain, clothes reuse, closed loop, charity driven
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15087 (URN)10.3390/su10041176 (DOI)000435188000280 ()2-s2.0-85045460468 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Paras, M. K., Ekwall, D. & Pal, R. (2018). Developing a framework for the performance evaluation of sorting and grading firms of used clothing. Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a framework for the performance evaluation of sorting and grading firms of used clothing
2018 (English)In: Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, ISSN 2398-5364Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a framework for evaluating the performance of reverse value chain activities in the clothing industry operating at base of the pyramid. Specifically, the research explores firm and supply chain factors influencing clothing reverse value chain activities with a focus on developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted an explorative technique using direct observations and semi-structured interviews to collect information from eight companies and two traders. Internal resources and value chain capabilities were examined using theoretical underpinnings of resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid.

Findings

The paper identified multiple benefits of offshoring reverse value chain activities to the developing countries (at the base of the pyramid). Low operation cost, skilled manpower, business knowledge and location are found to be internal success factors. While favourable government legislation and domestic recycling markets are important external factors contributing to the success. Developing economies such as India contribute to firm performance by integrating, transforming, acquiring and co-creating the resources at base of the pyramid. Further, it was found that to achieve higher assets specificity, a few companies have opened their own shops in African countries, while others have opened sourcing branches in Canada or the USA to ensure good quality of raw materials. Collaboration and coordination among different value chain partners minimise cost and increases profitability. Innovation in the process such as clothes mutilation for recycling has created new business opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

Information was collected from only eight organisations and two traders from India. Future scholars may extend the research to generalise the findings by documenting similar phenomena.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can serve a basis for the practitioners to evaluate firm performance, and the insights can be used to achieve sustainability by engaging producers, employees, consumers and community using base of the pyramid approach.

Originality/value

The study provides unique insights into the prevalent export and re-exports phenomena of used clothing. The resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid strategy underpinned together to develop a framework for understanding reverse value chain activities of clothing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Qualitative, Clothing industry, Base of the pyramid, Firms performance framework, Sorting and grading, Reverse value chain
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business and IT; Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15467 (URN)10.1108/JGOSS-11-2017-0047 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055088071 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Erasmus Mundus joint doctoral programme (SMDTex)” funded by the European Commission
Available from: 2018-12-15 Created: 2018-12-15 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Ekwall, D. & Lantz, B. (2018). The use of violence in cargo theft – a supply chain disruption case. Journal of Transportation Security
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of violence in cargo theft – a supply chain disruption case
2018 (English)In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines patterns of reported cargo thefts involving violence in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa region with regard to the value of stolen goods, incident frequency, transport chain location, and incident category. The research method is deductive and is based on analyses of secondary data obtained from the Incident Information Service by the Transported Asset Protection Association. The results are discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and supply chain disruption literature. We found that perpetrators who use violence seem to cause greater losses per theft than those who use other types of modus operandi. Further, the most common type of violent cargo theft occurs on Mondays in January when cargo vehicles are robbed on the road and consumer electronics are stolen. In terms of supply chain disruption, violent cargo thefts can be seen as externally-caused disruptions, which can indirectly cause major problems for the supply chain.

Keywords
Hijack, Robbery, Transport chain, Violence in cargo theft, Supply chain disruption
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-13723 (URN)10.1007/s12198-018-0186-0 (DOI)000444917100002 ()2-s2.0-85040768908 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-11-30Bibliographically approved
Ekwall, D. & Lantz, B. (2018). THEFT OF GOODS IN PORTS A review of TAPA EMEA IIS statistics. Turku
Open this publication in new window or tab >>THEFT OF GOODS IN PORTS A review of TAPA EMEA IIS statistics
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report examines patterns of reported cargo thefts at maritime transport facilities in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to frequency, incident category, modus operandi, and targeted product category. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Incident Information Service (IIS), a database of transport-related crimes from the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA region. The results are analysed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and criminology theories. We find that maritime transport facilities constitute a rare target location for cargo thieves, as only 102 of more than 24,500 incidents (0.4%) in the IIS database occur there. Nevertheless, some conclusions can be made. First, there seems to be seasonality in day of the week, but probably not in month of the year. Second, violent and fraudulent modi operandi of theft at maritime transport facilities are about as common as in the whole data set. Thus, it could be conjectured that the impact from violent and fraudulent incidents is several times higher than the most common types of incident category or modus operandi, although this is unsupported in this study. The product categories signal that there is big variation in value in stolen goods. Third, it is possible that potential perpetrators consider security levels at maritime transport facilities to be higher, leading to fewer theft attempts. This study is limited by the content of and classifications within the TAPA EMEA IIS database.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Turku: , 2018. p. 27
Series
PUBLICATIONS OF THE HAZARD PROJECT ; 18
Keywords
Cargo theft, hot products, crime seasonality, incident categories, port facilities
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-13725 (URN)978-951-29-7125-1 (ISBN)
Projects
HAZARD project
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-02-26
Ekwall, D. & Lantz, B. (2017). Cargo theft risk and security: product and location. In: Daniel Hellström, Joakim Kembro, Hajnalka Bodnar (Ed.), NOFOMA 2017 THE 29TH NOFOMA CONFERENCE: TAKING ON GRAND CHALLENGES: . Paper presented at 29th Norforma Conference. Lund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cargo theft risk and security: product and location
2017 (English)In: NOFOMA 2017 THE 29TH NOFOMA CONFERENCE: TAKING ON GRAND CHALLENGES / [ed] Daniel Hellström, Joakim Kembro, Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of the study is to explore cargo theft risk and security for different product types at different locations along a transport chain. Design/methodology/approach - This study is based on a system-theoretical approach. The research method is deductive as the analysis is based on secondary data and results from a questionnaire. The results are analyzed based on supply chain risk management (SCRM) and criminology theories. Findings - Due to substantial interaction effects, the type of product and transport chain location must be considered to determine the correct level of security. Specifically, the product type is more significant since the general cargo theft risk is higher. Furthermore, the transport industry has three perspectives of security responses to cargo theft: demanded, needed, and actual security, which differ depending on the product type and transport chain location. Research limitations/implications - This study is limited by the content and classifications of the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) of the Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Incident Information Service (IIS) database as well as by the attendees of the 2015 TAPA EMEA Q4 conference. Practical implications - This paper has both research and practical implications as it studies security within freight transport from three perspectives as linked to general cargo theft risk and goods owners’ requirements. Originality/value - This paper addresses the contemporary SCRM problem of cargo theft using actual crime statistics and the industry understanding of generic required security levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: , 2017
Keywords
Supply chain risk, Supply chain security, Transport chain location, Cargo theft, Product type
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-13724 (URN)978-91-7753-337-5 (ISBN)
Conference
29th Norforma Conference
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-02-26
Kumar, V., Koehl, L., Zeng, X. Z. & Ekwall, D. (2017). Coded yarn based tag for tracking textile supply chain. Journal of manufacturing systems, 42, 124-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coded yarn based tag for tracking textile supply chain
2017 (English)In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 42, p. 124-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traceability has gained considerable attention to facilitate monitored production, product recall, safety and reverse supply chain activities, in recent years. Traceability in manufacturing and distribution involves the use of tracking tags which are attached to the products; consequently, the products are tracked by recording the identity of attached tracking tags in the supply chain. In this context, this paper introduces a new yarn coding-based tracking tag which is fully integrated into textile for tracking the textile supply chain. The new tracking tag involves the use of special yarns which act as information carrier and basic unit of the tracking tag. An implementation scenario is discussed to use the designed tracking tag to monitor the production and authentication purposes. Real prototypes of the fully integrated coded yarn based textile tags are demonstrated in woven and knitted structures and analysed under the effect of washing treatments to simulate realistic conditions. Further, an image pattern recognition based algorithm has been introduced and analysed to extract the information encoded in the tag using coded yarns.

Keywords
Tracking tag, Yarn tag, Traceability, Yarn coding, Image pattern recognition
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-11534 (URN)10.1016/j.jmsy.2016.11.008 (DOI)000394077400010 ()
Available from: 2016-12-29 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Kumar, V., Hallqvist, C. & Ekwall, D. (2017). Developing a Framework for Traceability Implementation in the Textile Supply Chain. Systems, 5(2), Article ID 33.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a Framework for Traceability Implementation in the Textile Supply Chain
2017 (English)In: Systems, ISSN 2079-8954, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traceability has recently gained considerable attention in the textile industry. Traceability stands for information sharing about a product including the product history, specification, or location. With the involvement of globally dispersed actors in the textile supply chain, ensuring appropriate product quality with timely supplies is crucial for surviving in this industry with ever increasing competition. Hence it is of paramount importance for a supply chain actor to track every product and trace its history in the supply chain. In this context, this paper presents a framework to implement traceability in the textile supply chain. A system approach has been followed, where firstly the usage requirement of traceability is defined, and then a framework for implementing intra-actor or internal traceability and inter-actor or external traceability is discussed. This article further presents a sequential diagram to demonstrate the interaction and information exchange between the actors in the supply chain, when the traceability information is requested. An example is also illustrated for data storage using a relational database management system and information exchange using XML for the textile weaver. Finally, the article discusses challenges and future studies required to implement traceability in the textile supply chain.

Keywords
supply chain traceability, traceability framework, textile, RDBMS, XML
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-12059 (URN)10.3390/systems5020033 (DOI)000404527800009 ()
Projects
SMDTex
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Paras, M. K., Pal, R. & Ekwall, D. (2017). Systematic literature review to develop a conceptual framework for a reuse-based clothing value chain. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 1-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematic literature review to develop a conceptual framework for a reuse-based clothing value chain
2017 (English)In: The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A closed loop value chain is a concept that maximises a product’s utility both before and after end-of-life. This chain’s primary components are reuse, repair, up-cycling and down-cycling. This paper reviews the literature in the domain of ‘reuse’ to formulate and propose a conceptual framework for a ‘reuse-based clothing value chain’. We performed a systematic literature review in which a range of online databases were searched to select papers related to reuse between September 1994 and March 2015. Our review is presented broadly and in two parts: the first part provides a descriptive analysis of the articles, and the second part develops propositions based on the textual analysis. The review revealed that there are six primary drivers of the reuse-based clothing value chain: system, redesignability, price, information, legislation, and consumer attitude. Corresponding propositions highlight the key importance of system, product redesignability, product price, information, government legislation and consumer attitude to the economic success of the reuse-based clothing value chain. Finally, this work proposes a conceptual framework based on our propositions. This research may help scholars and practitioners to understand the current state of the literature. The list of references may be considered a source for future research in this area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
Closed loop chain, clothing value chain, reuse, literature review, conceptual framework
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Textiles and Fashion (General)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-13174 (URN)10.1080/09593969.2017.1380066 (DOI)000434776500001 ()2-s2.0-85030723953 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-16 Created: 2017-12-16 Last updated: 2018-12-01Bibliographically approved
Kumar, V., Ekwall, D. & Hallqvist, C. (2016). DEVELOPMENT OF TRACEABILITY FRAMEWORK FOR TEXTILE SUPPLY CHAIN. In: NOFOMA 2016 - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH ANNUAL NORDIC LOGISTICS RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE 8-10 JUNE 2016, TURKU, FINLAND: . Paper presented at NOFOMA 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DEVELOPMENT OF TRACEABILITY FRAMEWORK FOR TEXTILE SUPPLY CHAIN
2016 (English)In: NOFOMA 2016 - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH ANNUAL NORDIC LOGISTICS RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE 8-10 JUNE 2016, TURKU, FINLAND, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

ABSTRACT

Purpose

The focus of this work-in-progress is to develop a general traceability framework for the textile supply chain. Traceability is of a significant importance for the textile industry, firstly due to multiple actors’ involvement in the production and distribution, and secondly the heterogeneous nature of actors, dealing with diverse materials, including fibre spinning mills, yarn spinning mills, weaving industry and garment manufacturers. Moreover, The textile industry has seen a global shift towards recently industrialized countries; consequently, the offshore buyers have become more dependent on complex supply chains and created more information asymmetry as offshore buyers cannot directly observe the production activities of a distant manufacturer. Resulting consequences of information asymmetry can be seen in terms of counterfeit products, malpractices in production and other social and environmental issues. Moreover, textile market is a volatile market because of rapidly changing trends and consumers’ preferences, therefore inter-actor visibility of production activities is required for synchronous production to meet the market demands. Considering the above-mentioned characteristics and challenges in textile industry, this work targets to develop a traceability framework for improving supply chain visibility and integrate various actors in the textile production supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The traceability framework development has been divided into four steps, namely, identification of user requirement of different stakeholders in the textile supply chain, identification of different information points, traceability data modelling, and information exchange model to develop traceability among various stakeholders in the textile production supply chain. In-depth analysis was conducted for the need of traceability from various stakeholders’ perspectives in textile sectors, which include various actors in textile production and distribution, consumers and surveillance/certification authorities. An UML case diagram approach has been followed to define the traceability requirements and UML class diagram approach has been adopted for modelling traceability data.

Findings

The present traceability framework is proposed to handle traceability information and information exchange between various stakeholders in the textile production supply chain, which can not only disseminate the traceability information in the supply chain, but also helpful 704 in case of recall crisis (such as product design fault, harmful chemicals or other related issues) where surveillance authorities can track (forward traceability) and trace (for identifying the source error which resulted recall) the products in the textile supply chain for recalling. Moreover, the traceability information can be used by consumers in order to about the product and raw materials’ history.

Practical implications

Traceability works on the credibility of the organizations, which handle the traceability data. Therefore, in the real implementation, either organizations need to be transparent in terms of traceability data or third party certification/audit is required for ensuring that the traceability information provided by an organization is correct/authentic. Secondly the semantics for information exchange are required to be unified across various actors involved in traceability information storage and exchange.

Original/value

The traceability framework covers perspectives from traceability not only from various actors involved in textile supply chain, but also includes consumers therefore, traceability information is collected by this framework can be utilized from industrial as well as consumer and surveillance perspectives.

Keywords
Traceability, Textile supply chain, UML
National Category
Business Administration Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-10746 (URN)
Conference
NOFOMA 2016
Available from: 2016-09-25 Created: 2016-09-25 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0871-1838

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