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Riva, G., Platen, E. B., Ringh, M., Claesson, A., Jonsson, M., Nord, A., . . . Hollenberg, J. (2024). Compression-Only or Standard Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Trained Laypersons in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Nationwide Randomized Trial in Sweden. Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 17(3), Article ID E010027.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compression-Only or Standard Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Trained Laypersons in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Nationwide Randomized Trial in Sweden
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2024 (English)In: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, ISSN 1941-7713, E-ISSN 1941-7705, Vol. 17, no 3, article id E010027Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The ongoing TANGO2 (Telephone Assisted CPR. AN evaluation of efficacy amonGst cOmpression only and standard CPR) trial is designed to evaluate whether compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by trained laypersons is noninferior to standard CPR in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This pilot study assesses feasibility, safety, and intermediate clinical outcomes as part of the larger TANGO2 survival trial. METHODS: Emergency medical dispatch calls of suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were screened for inclusion at 18 dispatch centers in Sweden between January 1, 2017, and March 12, 2020. Inclusion criteria were witnessed event, bystander on the scene with previous CPR training, age above 18 years of age, and no signs of trauma, pregnancy, or intoxication. Cases were randomized 1:1 at the dispatch center to either instructions to perform compression-only CPR (intervention) or instructions to perform standard CPR (control). Feasibility included evaluation of inclusion, randomization, and adherence to protocol. Safety measures were time to emergency medical service dispatch CPR instructions, and to start of CPR, intermediate clinical outcome was defined as 1-day survival. RESULTS: Of 11 838 calls of suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest screened for inclusion, 2168 were randomized and 1250 (57.7%) were out-of-hospital cardiac arrests treated by the emergency medical service. Of these, 640 were assigned to intervention and 610 to control. Crossover from intervention to control occurred in 16.3% and from control to intervention in 18.5%. The median time from emergency call to ambulance dispatch was 1 minute and 36 s (interquartile range, 1.1-2.2) in the intervention group and 1 minute and 30 s (interquartile range, 1.1-2.2) in the control group. Survival to 1 day was 28.6% versus 28.4% (P=0.984) for intervention and control, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this national randomized pilot trial, compression-only CPR versus standard CPR by trained laypersons was feasible. No differences in safety measures or short-term survival were found between the 2 strategies. Efforts to reduce crossover are important and may strengthen the ongoing main trial that will assess differences in long-term survival. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02401633. 

National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31723 (URN)10.1161/circoutcomes.122.010027 (DOI)2-s2.0-85188256073 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-03-26 Created: 2024-03-26 Last updated: 2024-03-26
Larsson, G., Axelsson, C., Andersson Hagiwara, M., Herlitz, J., Klementsson, H., Troëng, T. & Magnusson, C. (2024). Epidemiology of patients assessed for trauma by Swedish ambulance services: a retrospective registry study. BMC Emergency Medicine, 24(1), Article ID 11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epidemiology of patients assessed for trauma by Swedish ambulance services: a retrospective registry study
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2024 (English)In: BMC Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

There is a lack of knowledge regarding the epidemiology of severe trauma assessed by Swedish emergency medical services (EMS).

Aim

To investigate the prevalence of trauma in Sweden assessed by EMS from a national perspective and describe patient demography, aetiology, trauma type, prehospital triage and clinical outcomes.

Methods

Data from two national quality registries, the Swedish Ambulance Registry and the Swedish Trauma Registry (SweTrau) were collected from January 1 to December 31, 2019. Inclusion criteria were an Emergency Symptoms and Signs code equivalent to trauma in the Swedish Ambulance Registry and criteria fulfilled for SweTrau inclusion. Exclusion criteria were patients < 18 years old, those not transported to a hospital and those without a personal identification number.

Results

In total, 53,120 patients with trauma were included (14% of primary EMS missions involving a personal identification number). Of those, 2,278 (4.3%) patients (median age: 45 years; 32% women) were reported in SweTrau to have severe or potentially severe trauma (penetrating: 7%, blunt: 93%). In terms of including all causes of trauma, the code for ‘trauma alert activation’ was most frequent (55%). The most frequent injury mechanism was an injury caused by a car (34%). Most (89%) cases were assigned Priority 1 (life-threatening condition) at the dispatch centre. 62% were regarded as potentially life threatening upon EMS arrival, whereas 29% were assessed as non-life-threatening. Overall, 25% of the patients had new injury severity scores > 15. 12% required invasive treatment, 11% were discharged with severe disability and the 30-day mortality rate was 3.6%.

Conclusion

In this cross-sectional study, 14% of the primary EMS missions for one year were caused by trauma. However, only a small proportion of these cases are severe injuries, and the risk of severe disabilities and death appears to be limited. The most frequent aetiology of a severe trauma is injury caused by a car, and most severe traumas are blunt. Severe traumas are given the highest priority at the dispatch centre in the vast majority of cases, but nearly one-third of these cases are considered a low priority by the EMS nurse. The latter leaves room for improvement.

Keywords
Trauma, Injury, Emergency medical services, Ambulance services, Patient, Severity, Mortality
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care; The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31161 (URN)10.1186/s12873-023-00924-5 (DOI)001138257800002 ()2-s2.0-85181723478 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-10 Created: 2024-01-10 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Strömsöe, A. & Herlitz, J. (2024). Incidence and percentage of survival after cardiac arrest outside and inside hospital. Resuscitation Plus, 17, Article ID 100594.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incidence and percentage of survival after cardiac arrest outside and inside hospital
2024 (English)In: Resuscitation Plus, E-ISSN 2666-5204, Resuscitation Plus, ISSN 2666-5204, Vol. 17, article id 100594Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim

To compare the incidence and percentage of survival after cardiac arrest outside and inside hospital where cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) had been started between two regions in Sweden in a 10-year perspective.

 

Methods

A retrospective observational study including CPR treated patients both after out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and IHCA) in Sweden, 2013–2022. Data was retrieved from the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR).

 

Results

The overall incidence of OHCA and IHCA events were 2,940 in Dalarna (having a lower population and population density) and 16,187 in Västra Götaland (having a higher population and population density). The overall incidence of survival when OHCA and IHCA were combined was 20 per 100,000 person years in Dalarna and 19 per 100,000 person years in Västra Götaland. The corresponding result for OHCA was 9 versus 7 and for IHCA 11 versus 12. The overall percentage of survival was 20% in Dalarna and 19% in Västra Götaland. The corresponding result for OHCA was 13% versus 10% and for IHCA 37% versus 36%.

 

Conclusion

Overall, there was no marked difference neither in incidence nor in percentage of survival after cardiac arrest between the two regions. However, regarding cardiac arrest that took place outside hospital both incidence and percentage of survival was higher in Dalarna than in Västra Götaland despite the fact that the former had lower population density.

Keywords
In-hospital cardiac arrest, incidence, Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, Resuscitation, survivors
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31720 (URN)10.1016/j.resplu.2024.100594 (DOI)2-s2.0-85186983990 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-03-25 Created: 2024-03-25 Last updated: 2024-03-25
Fovaeus, H., Holmen, J., Mandalenakis, Z., Herlitz, J., Rawshani, A. & Castellheim, A. G. (2024). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Survival in children and young adults over 30 years, a nationwide registry-based cohort study. Resuscitation, Article ID 110103.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Survival in children and young adults over 30 years, a nationwide registry-based cohort study
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2024 (English)In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, article id 110103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: We studied short-term (30-day) and long-term (up to ten-year) survival among children and young adults following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Sweden over the course of the past 30 years. We also studied the causes of OHCA in children and examined predictors of survival. SETTING This was a nationwide, registry-based cohort study, using the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Our study comprised a cohort of 4,804 individuals aged 0 to 30 years who suffered OHCA between 1990 and 2020, in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated. We stratified the study cohort to distinct age groups and time periods.

Results: We found an increase in 30-day survival from 7% to 20% over the span of 30 years. In those under 1 year of age, survival increased from 2% to 19%. Time to CPR decreased from 14 to 2 minutes. The 10-year survival was high among those who survived 30 days. The etiology of cardiac arrests exhibited significant variations across different age groups but remained relatively consistent over time. Causes linked to mental illness constituted a substantial percentage of these cases. Compared to the reference period (1990-1994), the odds of survival in 2015-2020 was 3.00 (95% CI: 1.43, 6.94; p = 0.006).

Conclusion: Survival rate after OHCA in children and young adults has increased three-fold over the past 30 years. Still overall mortality is high underscoring the need for continued efforts to mitigate risk factors and optimize survival.

Keywords
OHCA (out-of-hospital cardiac arrest), cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest registry, pediatric, survival, the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31274 (URN)10.1016/j.resuscitation.2023.110103 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182349849 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Albert, M., Herlitz, J., Rawshani, A., Forsberg, S., Ringh, M., Hollenberg, J., . . . Nordberg, P. (2023). Aetiology and outcome in hospitalized cardiac arrest patients.. European Heart Journal Open, 3(4), Article ID oead066.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aetiology and outcome in hospitalized cardiac arrest patients.
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2023 (English)In: European Heart Journal Open, E-ISSN 2752-4191, Vol. 3, no 4, article id oead066Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: To study aetiologies of in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) and their association with 30-day survival.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Observational study with data from national registries. Specific aetiologies (n = 22) of IHCA patients between April 2018 and December 2020 were categorized into cardiac vs. non-cardiac and six main aetiology categories: myocardial ischemia, other cardiac causes, pulmonary causes, infection, haemorrhage, and other non-cardiac causes. Main endpoints were proportions in each aetiology, 30-day survival, and favourable neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category scale 1-2) at discharge. Among, 4320 included IHCA patients (median age 74 years, 63.1% were men), approximate 50% had cardiac causes with a 30-day survival of 48.4% compared to 18.7% among non-cardiac causes (P < 0.001). The proportion in each category were: myocardial ischemia 29.9%, pulmonary 21.4%, other cardiac causes 19.6%, other non-cardiac causes 11.6%, infection 9%, and haemorrhage 8.5%. The odds ratio (OR) for 30-day survival compared to myocardial ischemia for each category were: other cardiac causes OR 1.48 (CI 1.24-1.76); pulmonary causes OR 0.36 (CI 0.3-0.44); infection OR 0.25 (CI 0.18-0.33); haemorrhage OR 0.22 (CI 0.16-0.3); and other non-cardiac causes OR 0.56 (CI 0.45-0.69). IHCA caused by myocardial ischemia had the best favourable neurological outcome while those caused by infection had the lowest OR 0.06 (CI 0.03-0.13).

CONCLUSION: In this nationwide observational study, aetiologies with cardiac and non-cardiac causes of IHCA were evenly distributed. IHCA caused by myocardial ischemia and other cardiac causes had the strongest associations with 30-day survival and neurological outcome.

Keywords
AED, Aetiology, CPR, IHCA
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care; The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31214 (URN)10.1093/ehjopen/oead066 (DOI)37564102 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168924109 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Larsson, G., Axelsson, C., Andersson Hagiwara, M., Herlitz, J. & Magnusson, C. (2023). Characteristics of a trauma population in an ambulance organisation in Sweden: results from an observational study. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 31(1), Article ID 33.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of a trauma population in an ambulance organisation in Sweden: results from an observational study
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2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 31, no 1, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Globally, injuries are a major health problem, and in Sweden, injuries are the second most common reason for ambulance dispatch. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the epidemiology of injuries requiring assessment by emergency medical services (EMS) in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to describe the prehospital population with injuries that have been assessed and treated by EMS.

Methods

A randomly selected retrospective sample was collected from 1 January through 31 December 2019 in a region in southwestern Sweden. Data were collected from ambulance and hospital medical records.

Results

Among 153,724 primary assignments, 26,697 (17.4%) were caused by injuries. The study cohort consisted of 5,235 patients, of whom 50.5% were men, and the median age was 63 years. The most common cause of injury was low-energy fall (51.4%), and this was the cause in 77.8% of those aged > 63 years and in 26.7% of those aged ≤ 63 years. The injury mechanism was a motor vehicle in 8.0%, a motorcycle in 2.1% and a bicycle in 4.0%. The most common trauma location was the residential area (55.5% overall; 77.9% in the elderly and 34.0% in the younger group). In the prehospital setting, the most frequent clinical sign was a wound (33.2%), a closed fracture were seen in 18.9% and an open fracture in 1.0%. Pain was reported in 74.9% and 42.9% reported severe pain. Medication was given to 42.4% of patients before arrival in the hospital. The most frequent triage colour according to the RETTS was orange (46.7%), whereas only 4.4% were triaged red. Among all patients, 83.6% were transported to the hospital, and 27.8% received fracture treatment after hospital admission. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.4%.

Conclusion

Among EMS assignments in southwestern Sweden, 17% were caused by injury equally distributed between women and men. More than half of these cases were caused by low-energy falls, and the most common trauma location was a residential area. The majority of the victims had pain upon arrival of the EMS, and a large proportion appeared to have severe pain.

 

National Category
Nursing
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care; The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30003 (URN)10.1186/s13049-023-01090-0 (DOI)001020635300003 ()2-s2.0-85163314491 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-29 Created: 2023-06-29 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, L., Rawshani, A., Råmunddal, T., Redfors, B., Petursson, P., Angerås, O., . . . Myredal, A. (2023). Characteristics, survival and neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in young adults in Sweden: A nationwide study.. Resuscitation Plus, 16, Article ID 100503.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics, survival and neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in young adults in Sweden: A nationwide study.
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2023 (English)In: Resuscitation Plus, E-ISSN 2666-5204, Vol. 16, article id 100503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive overview of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in young adults.

METHODS: The data set analyzed included all cases of OHCA from 1990 to 2020 in the age-range 16-49 years in the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR). OHCA between 2010 and 2020 were analyzed in more detail. Clinical characteristics, survival, neurological outcomes, and long-time trends in survival were studied. Logistic regression was used to study 30-days survival, neurological outcomes and Utstein determinants of survival.

RESULTS: Trends were assessed in 11,180 cases. The annual increase in 30-days survival during 1990-2020 was 5.9% with no decline in neurological function among survivors. Odds ratio (OR) for heart disease as the cause was 0.55 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.67) in 2017-2020 compared to 1990-1993. Corresponding ORs for overdoses and suicide attempts were 1.61 (95% CI 1.23-2.13) and 2.06 (95% CI 1.48-2.94), respectively. Exercise related OHCA was noted in roughly 5%. OR for bystander CPR in 2017-2020 vs 1990-1993 was 3.11 (95% CI 2.57 to 3.78); in 2020 88 % received bystander CPR. EMS response time increased from 6 to 10 minutes.

CONCLUSION: Survival has increased 6% annually, resulting in a three-fold increase over 30 years, with stable neurological outcome. EMS response time increased with 66% but the majority now receive bystander CPR. Cardiac arrest due to overdoses and suicide attempts are increasing.

Keywords
Cardiac arrest, Cardiovascular disease, OHCA, Survival
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31220 (URN)10.1016/j.resplu.2023.100503 (DOI)38026135 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-01-19Bibliographically approved
Wennman, I., Wijk, H., Jood, K., Carlström, E., Fridlund, B., Alsholm, L., . . . Hansson, P.-O. (2023). Fast track to stroke unit for patients not eligible for acute intervention, a case-control register study on 1066 patients.. Scientific Reports, 13, Article ID 20799.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast track to stroke unit for patients not eligible for acute intervention, a case-control register study on 1066 patients.
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2023 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, article id 20799Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stroke patients not eligible for acute intervention often have low priority and may spend long time at the emergency department (ED) waiting for admission. The aim of this retrospective case-control register study was to evaluate outcomes for such "low priority" stroke patients who were transported via Fast Track directly to the stroke unit, according to pre-specified criteria by emergency medical service (EMS). The outcomes of Fast Track patients, transported directly to stroke unit (cases) were compared with the outcomes of patients who fulfilled these critera for Fast Track, but instead were transported to the ED (controls). In all, 557 cases and 509 controls were identified. The latter spent a mean time of 237 min in the ED before admission. The 90-day mortality rate was 12.9% for cases and 14.7% for controls (n.s.). None of the secondary outcome events differed significantly between the groups: 28-day mortality rate; death rate during hospitalisation; proportion of pneumonias, falls or pressure ulcers; or health-related outcomes according to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. These findings indicates that the Fast Track to the stroke unit by an EMS is safe for selected stroke patients and could avoid non-valuable time in the ED.

National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care; The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31219 (URN)10.1038/s41598-023-48007-6 (DOI)38012289 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85177821889 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Dejby, E., Bhatt, D. L., Skoglund, K., Rawshani, A., Omerovic, E., Redfors, B., . . . Rawshani, A. (2023). Left-sided valvular heart disease and survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide registry-based study.. Scientific Reports, 13, Article ID 12662.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Left-sided valvular heart disease and survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide registry-based study.
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2023 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, article id 12662Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Survival in left-sided valvular heart disease (VHD; aortic stenosis [AS], aortic regurgitation [AR], mitral stenosis [MS], mitral regurgitation [MR]) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unknown. We studied all cases of OHCA in the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. All degrees of VHD, diagnosed prior to OHCA, were included. Association between VHD and survival was studied using logistic regression, gradient boosting and Cox regression. We studied time to cardiac arrest, comorbidities, survival, and cerebral performance category (CPC) score. We included 55,615 patients; 1948 with AS (3,5%), 384 AR (0,7%), 17 MS (0,03%), and 704 with MR (1,3%). Patients with MS were not described due to low case number. Time from VHD diagnosis to cardiac arrest was 3.7 years in AS, 4.5 years in AR and 4.1 years in MR. ROSC occurred in 28% with AS, 33% with AR, 36% with MR and 35% without VHD. Survival at 30 days was 5.2%, 10.4%, 9.2%, 11.4% in AS, AR, MR and without VHD, respectively. There were no survivors in people with AS presenting with asystole or PEA. CPC scores did not differ in those with VHD compared with no VHD. Odds ratio (OR) for MR and AR showed no difference in survival, while AS displayed OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.46-0.72), vs no VHD. AS is associated with halved survival in OHCA, while AR and MR do not affect survival. Survivors with AS have neurological outcomes comparable to patients without VHD.

National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31217 (URN)10.1038/s41598-023-39570-z (DOI)37542095 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-01-19Bibliographically approved
Kauppi, W., Axelsson, C., Herlitz, J., Jiménez‐Herrera, M. & Palmér, L. (2023). Lived experiences of being cared for by ambulance clinicians when experiencing breathlessness—A phenomenological study. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lived experiences of being cared for by ambulance clinicians when experiencing breathlessness—A phenomenological study
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2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Breathlessness is a serious and distressing symptom and a common reason why patients require prehospital care by ambulance clinicians. However, little is known about how patients experience this care when they are in a state of breathlessness.

 

Aim

The aim of this study is to describe the lived experiences of being cared for by ambulance clinicians when experiencing breathlessness.

 

Methods

Fourteen lifeworld interviews were conducted with patients who experienced breathlessness and were cared for by ambulance clinicians. The interviews were analysed using a qualitative phenomenological approach.

 

Findings

The essential meaning of being cared for by ambulance clinicians when experiencing breathlessness is described in two ways: existential humanising care, in which the experience is that of being embraced by a genuine presence or existential dehumanising care, in which feeling exposed to an objectifying presence is the main experience. This meaning has four constituents: surrendering to and trusting in the care that will come; being exposed to an objectifying presence is violating; being embraced by a genuine presence is relieving; and knowing is dwelling.

 

Conclusion

The findings reveal that the ability of ambulance clinicians to provide existential humanising and trustful care, which is the foundation of professional judgement, was essential in how patients responded to and handled the overall situation when breathlessness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
mbulance care; breathlessness; caring science; lived experiences; phenomenology; prehospital; qualitative research
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-28385 (URN)10.1111/scs.13108 (DOI)000829305900001 ()35875847 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85134571220 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-15 Created: 2022-08-15 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4139-6235

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