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  • Hammarfelt, Björn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    What is a discipline?: The conceptualization of research areas and their operationalization in bibliometric research2018In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators / [ed] Rodrigo Costas Thomas Franssen Alfredo Yegros-Yegros, Leiden, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights disadvantages of conceptual impreciseness, and advocates further attention to the labels and concepts used when classifying clusters or groups based on bibliographic data. The main focus of the analysis is on the concept of ‘discipline’ and how it is used in bibliometric research, but the implications concern a broader array of related terms. 

  • Högrell, Albin
    Uppfattningar om störande beteenden på svenska folkbibliotek 1968-1999: Exemplet Biblioteksbladet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how disturbing behaviours in Swedish public libraries have been looked upon in the library journal Biblioteksbladet during the years 1968 and 1999. The empirical material consists of 37 articles published in Biblioteksbladet. The main questions posed in this study are: how have disturbing behaviours been discussed in the journal, what have been seen as disturbing, and what causes to the behaviour has been emphasised? Which discourses can be traced, and who have had the possibility to express their views? The theoretical and methodological framework is based on both Michel Foucault’s and Ernesto Laclau’s and Chantal Mouffe’s discourse theories. In addition to this Foucault’s theories of power as a form of social control is used. The analysis shows that three discourses have occurred during the period. During the 70’s a material discourse, focusing on materiel variables such as architecture and physicalform, had a hegemonic position. Contemporary with this, there also was a social discourse, focusing on social problems primarily among suburban adolescents as the origin of the problems. During the 80’s the discussion declined, and simultaneously a liberal discourse was formed. In the liberal discourse, disturbing behaviours were not seen as a problem, and during the 90’s the question of disturbing behaviours almost disappeared completely from the agenda.

  • Sjöberg, Jesper
    Mediestrategiska dilemman i rättslig belysning.: En analys av JO:s hantering av fyra bibliotekärenden.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the professional, media-strategic practices that the requests by some users lead to, and how these practices can be understood and problematized in relation to the laws, regulations and governing documents to which the libraries relate. Thus, in this study, the media's media strategy choices are set in a context of judicial authority and legal principles. Based on four different concrete cases where a user reported the library's actions to JO, it is investigated what arguments users, libraries and JO use to claim their positions on the issue. In recent years, the various media strategy choices that the libraries make, about what books should be bought, moved, stored, or borrowed from other libraries, has increasingly been debated. In some cases this has led to reports to the judicial authority JO (Justitieombudsmannen), who has investigated the situation. In the center of investigations, there is often an individual librarian, who through his or her actions and choices, in the encounter with a user, is often faced with a dilemma and, as a consequence, sometimes acts without support in current legislation. Research shows that increased sick leave can be related to the worries and stresses that librarians experience in relation to these dilemmas. There is therefore a need for increased knowledge of the regulatory framework that libraries can seek support from in situations where they face contradictory norms and values in relation to a user's wishes.

  • Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wang, Lichuan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Chen, Yan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Curteza, Antonela
    “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iași.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Sustainable Application Based on Grouping Genetic Algorithm for Modularized Redesign Model in Apparel Reverse Supply Chain2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 3013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scarcity of natural resources and the problem of pollution have initiated the need for extending the life and use of existing products. The concept of the reverse supply chain provides an opportunity to recover value from discarded products. The potential for recovery and the improvement of value in the reverse supply chain of apparel has been barely studied. In this research, a novel modularized redesign model is developed and applied to the garment redesign process. The concept of modularization is used to extract parts from the end-of-use or end-of-life of products. The extracted parts are reassembled or reconstructed with the help of a proposed group genetic algorithm by using domain and industry-specific knowledge. Design fitness is calculated to achieve the optimal redesign. Subsequently, the practical relevance of the model is investigated with the help of an industrial case in Sweden. The case study finding reveals that the proposed method and model to calculate the design fitness could simplify the redesign process. The design fitness calculation is illustrated with the example of a polo t-shirt. The redesigned system-based modularization is in accordance with the practical situations because of its flexibility and viability to formulate redesign decisions. The grouping genetic algorithm could enable fast redesign decisions for designers.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-02 10:00 Styrelserummet, Iasi, Rumänien
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Reuse-based Reverse Value Chain for Sustainable Apparel Industry2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The reverse value chain is a concept that maximizes the utility of a product after end-of-life or end-of-use. Its main components are reuse, repair, up-cycling and down-cycling. This thesis has investigated the business of apparel ‘reuse’ to develop a reuse-based reverse value chain model for apparel industry. The research began by understanding the existing theory of reverse value chain. The theory includes a literature review of the value chain from the apparel industry as well as from the other industries. A conceptual framework has been developed by considering processes of reverse value chain such as collection, sorting and reprocessing.

    Consequently, the thesis has undertaken a mix method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to study the reuse-based reverse value chain. An exploratory method based on multiple case studies has been adopted to explore the current sustainable practices of apparel reuse. Organizations were visited and unstructured interviews were conducted with founder and senior managers. The results have been utilized to develop an empirical model from the current practices of collection, sorting, and reprocessing. Qualitative findings highlight that higher economic recovery depends upon efficient reprocessing and collaborations with different stakeholders of the reverse value chain of apparel. Thus, an efficient resource recovery is economical as well as environmentally sustainable. Engagement of marginalized and vulnerable sections of society in the reverse value chain of apparel contributes towards social sustainability.

    The empirical model was further strengthened by mathematical model formulation. Analytical hierarchy process, Genetic algorithm and Markov principle have been used for the analysis of reuse-based reverse value chain. The thesis provides theoretical contribution, implications and ways to improve the current practice of apparel reuse along with providing scope for future research.

  • Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    Faculty of Textile, Leather and Industrial Management, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iași.
    Chen, Yan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou .
    Wang, Lichuan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou .
    An Exploratory Study of Swedish Charities to Develop a Model for the Reuse-Based Clothing Value Chain2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper aims to explore the current clothes reuse business in order to develop a charity-driven model for the reuse-based clothing value chain. An exploratory study was carried out in Sweden to understand the business flow of clothes reuse. This study builds on the insights gained from the multiple charities involved in the reuse-based clothing value chain. Semi-structured interviews along with direct and participatory observation were used for data collection. In the current study of Swedish charities, the founders and senior managers of the organizations were interviewed. This paper provides several insights in the form of propositions and a model related to different drivers of the reuse-based clothing value chain. In this model, business factors (system, legislation, and awareness), product factors (design, quality, and price), and consumer attitude as donor/buyer are found to be key drivers. Product design, quality, and price depend upon clothes brand, construction, and material, which are collectively important for the sale of used products. In the future, researchers are encouraged to test the present set of propositions and the proposed model across different cultural settings. The model can serve as a framework for practitioners and will be helpful for designing business strategies based on the different factors identified in this study.

  • Landström, Peter
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ulvegärde Rombouts, Julia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Införandet av General Data Protection Regulation och dess påverkan på svenska företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present an individual has very little control over the personal data collected, how it is used and who manages it. This is something the EU wants to change with the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which will come into force next year. The new regulation includes greater control for the individual regarding the data collected by companies. The Regulation forces companies to restructure their systems so that they are compliant with GDPR. Since high sanctions may affect those companies that do not comply with the rules, all those who handle personal data will have to review the processes that relate to the handling of personal data. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how well prepared Swedish medium to large sized companies are one year before the introduction of GDPR. The thesis focuses on how companies work with the changes from a technical perspective, an organizational perspective and from a legal perspective. With a theoretical foundation as a basis, interviews were conducted on three different companies that handle personal data, both as data controller and as data processor. The result of the study was used to design an evaluation model that companies can use one year after the introduction of GDPR. The evaluation will provide an overview of how well the transition has been and if there are any areas that need further work. There were some uncertainties regarding how the technical solutions would need to be designed and implemented to help the company being compliant with GDPR. The legal issues were largely handled through processing agreements between data controllers, data processors and third parties. The organizational perspective meant training of staff and questions regarding how to raise awareness about GDPR and the changes in working practices.

  • Mellberg, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Skog, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Artificiell Intelligens inom rekryteringsprocessen: objektivitet med subjektiv data?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has several areas of use such as robotics, facial recognition and decision-making support. Organizations will use AI more to meet challenges within Human Resources (HR) over the next five years, indicating that AI is likely to become a more common occurrence in the recruitment process. One of the most important assets of a company is its employees and incorrect recruitments can lead to high costs. With machine learning and AI systems as decision makers it may be important to think about what data is provided to these systems, since one of the risks of machine learning within AI is that you do not know what the machines learn as they learn themselves. A larger amount of data does not necessarily lead to more subjective results, but the risk of directly encode discrimination still exists because of the data the AI system is provided with can contain bias. It has also been found that candidates do not want to be judged on political views, relationships or anything that can be gained through big data and data mining. The purpose of the study is to provide a deeper understanding of what is needed to automate the recruitment process using AI and machine learning and to design a list of how AI can be a support for companies to keep in mind during a possible implementation. The study has chosen three methods for empirical gathering, all of which are qualitative. Interviews and a survey has collected the data which is analyzed in Excel 2016 as well as Google Docs. The interviews were conducted in several stages and aimed towards two employees working at two different recruiting companies. The survey was aimed primarily towards individuals who will have graduated within this year. The selection of participants has been made for the purpose of the study and on some occasions a comfort selection has been made. The result shows that the recruiters spend a lot of time screening candidates and do this manually. The survey shows that future candidates have a neutral stance when it comes to trusting in an AI system performing the screening process. The respondent in the follow-up interview says that automation using AI would facilitate the work and agrees with the survey respondents considering the pros and cons of AI, but at the same time would not rely on the results. Further, the respondent believes that it is in the automated way the recruitment process will continue. The result of the study may be used by recruitment companies that are considering introducing AI into their recruitment processes.

  • Olsson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ring, Max
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Sabbagh, Hassan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Att förebygga det interna hotet med IT-regler2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to investigate the internal threat within organizations caused by human mistakes and negligence amongst employees. The purpose of this paper is to identify reasons for the mistakes and the negligence, describe some of the consequences and also investigate how the design of and work with IT policies, which is a set of rules and guidelines for IT security work, should be performed to minimize mistakes and negligence. A survey of previous literature has been conducted and a qualitative data collection has been made. The qualitative data collection included interviews with an e-commerce company, an IT consulting company and an IT security consultant. Previous literature and collected data have been analysed which resulted in a set of suggestions, for instance that customized language usage and categorization of IT policies, together with continuous training of employees is advocated to help prevent employees' mistakes and negligence. Thereby minimizing the internal threat. Any type of company that wants to improve its IT security by preventing the internal threat caused by its employees will benefit from these suggestions.

  • Sandberg, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Svensson, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Designprinciper för digitala DevOps-bedömningsmodeller2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is a great need for IT businesses to work with continuous improvement to keep competitive on the market. An important part of the work of continuous improvement is to assess and evaluate the existing situation with a view for creating profitable actions. To enable this assessment, businesses can use standards and models for process assessment. In the IT sector, many companies try to improve their work processes and combine development and operations. The work of this interconnection is often referred to as DevOps. The problem we address is that there are no simple digital tools that are contextualized for activities that want to improve collaboration between these departments. The existing class of DevOps assessment systems contains inadequate models, thus not support development and operational players in their work to assess their business to provide a basis for improvements. In order to improve the opportunities for DevOps operations while creating new knowledge, we have designed and evaluated a digital assessment model that can be used in practice. To fulfill the purpose, we have used the research method Action Design Research, which is a particularly suitable method of creating IT-related models in a real context. The result confirms that existing assessment models are not sufficient and that the problem is generalizable as a class of problems. An operating digital model will also be presented with the purpose of assessing activities from a DevOps context. In developing the artifact, three general design principles have also been identified which developers and practitioners should follow for design of future assessment models for DevOps. The principles imply that, in the creation of a DevOps assessment model in an IT context, (i) a grading scale should be divided into four capacity levels, (ii) statements used in the model should be changeable and adaptable as organizations are unique and (iii) should be developed so that development and operation can perform the evaluation together.

  • Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Koehl, Ludovic
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX, Roubaix, France.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX, Roubaix, France.
    A secured tag for implementation of traceability in textile and clothing supply chain2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile and clothing industry is one of the oldest manufacturing industries and is a major contributor in the economic growth of developing countries. However, from past few decades, it has been criticised for its opaque, unsecured and untraceable nature of supply chain. Addressing these challenges, the paper proposes a system approach to introduce an item-centric secured traceability concept to monitor and control manufacturing processes and supply chain activities. In order to implement such secured traceability system, the paper describes the process for manufacturing, encoding and validating an innovative two-factor secured tag based on particle randomness that is printed on the surface of textile. Being micro-sized, the particles are easy to read and validate with pattern recognition. Further, as achieved through an uncontrolled manufacturing process, the randomness is unclonable to produce counterfeit tags. Furthermore, a sequence of experimental analyses has been conducted using various simulated scenarios to verify its applicability. A secured tag can be a low-cost and durable substitute for detachable, unsecured identifiers commercially available in the market.

  • Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    et al.
    Koehl, Ludovic
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX, Roubaix, France.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX, Roubaix, France.
    Implementing traceability using particle randomness-based textile printed tags2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces a random particle-based traceability tag for textiles. The proposed tag not only act as a unique signature for the corresponding textile product but also possess the features such as easy to manufacture and hard to copy. It seeks applications in brand authentication and traceability in textile and clothing (T&C) supply chain. A prototype has been developed by screen printing process, in which micron-scale particles were mixed with the printing paste and printed on cotton fabrics to attain required randomness. To encode the randomness, the image of the developed tag was taken and analyzed using image processing. The randomness of the particles acts as a product key or unique signature which is required to decode the tag. Finally, washing and abrasion resistance tests were conducted to check the durability of the printed tag.

  • Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Löfström, Tuve
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Sundell, Håkan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Linnusson, Henrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Gidenstam, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Boström, Henrik
    School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Venn predictors for well-calibrated probability estimation trees2018In: 7th Symposium on Conformal and Probabilistic Prediction and Applications: COPA 2018, 11-13 June 2018, Maastricht, The Netherlands / [ed] Alex J. Gammerman and Vladimir Vovk and Zhiyuan Luo and Evgueni N. Smirnov and Ralf L. M. Peeter, 2018, p. 3-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful use of probabilistic classification requires well-calibrated probability estimates, i.e., the predicted class probabilities must correspond to the true probabilities. The standard solution is to employ an additional step, transforming the outputs from a classifier into probability estimates. In this paper, Venn predictors are compared to Platt scaling and isotonic regression, for the purpose of producing well-calibrated probabilistic predictions from decision trees. The empirical investigation, using 22 publicly available datasets, showed that the probability estimates from the Venn predictor were extremely well-calibrated. In fact, in a direct comparison using the accepted reliability metric, the Venn predictor estimates were the most exact on every data set.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 13:00 M402, The University of Borås, Borås
    Forsgren, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Enterprise Social Media in Project-based Knowledge Work: A contextualized view through the lens of activity theory2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project-based knowledge work is characterised by decentralised and dynamic team-based structures, different from the tradi­tional, bureaucratic organisation. Arguably, this flexible and collaborative work setting could benefit from enterprise social media, which helps facilitate how people connect, collaborate and share information across organisational boundaries.

    This thesis applies the theoretical lens of activity theory to explore the adoption, use and integration of enterprise social media in project-based knowledge work. Moreover, it develops a rich sociocultural understanding of how these platforms are situated in work activities. In particular, the focus lies on information sharing and the potential to connect different types of work, roles and responsibilities.

    Through a qualitative research design, this thesis contributes towards under­standing the subtle interplay between enterprise social media, employees’ infor­mation sharing and their situated work activities. Key findings reveal that enter­prise social media created long-term strategic benefits, such as a shared knowledge base, situation awareness, horizon scanning, as well as making project-based knowledge work more intertwined. Furthermore, support was also found for a grassroots approach for adoption, as employees were personally invested and more likely to find meaningful use in their activities, through exploration, innovation and trial and error.

    This thesis also identifies contradictions that relate to the role of enterprise social media for information sharing. It became evident that different platforms could co-exist in functional arrangements, with a specific place and purpose in the wider ecology. However, contradictions emerge in terms of overlaps between technolo-gies, asymmetry in usage and the appearance of different information sharing practices and dependencies.

    This work presents new theoretical insights into how enterprise social media are used for information sharing in work activities, bringing attention to what people are aiming to achieve, and highlighting how sociocultural elements can have an influence.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-25 10:00 310, University of Borås, Borås
    Souza Filho, Pedro
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fungi-based biorefinery model for food industry waste: a progress towards circular economy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The food industry, one of the most important industrial sectors worldwide, generates large amounts of biodegradable waste with high organic load. In recent years, the traditional management methods to treat this waste (e.g., landfilling) have been considered not suitable because they do not exploit the potential of the waste material. Alternatively, valorization of food industry waste via a biorefinery model using filamentous fungi is considered to represent an attractive strategy because it minimizes the negative impacts while recovering the nutrients and energy of the waste, in accordance with the concept of the circular economy.

    In this thesis, four food processing wastes were utilized as case studies: potato protein liquor (PPL, the soluble fraction of potato starch production waste), the peels wasted during orange juice production, the starchy byproduct of pea protein processes, and the wastewater of a wheat-starch plant. Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycetous filamentous fungus, was grown with these wastes as a substrate, yielding biomass containing 43% (w/w) protein together with 51% removal of the chemical oxygen demand when cultivated in tenfold-diluted PPL. Moreover, protein-rich biomass was produced using the pea-processing byproduct (55%) and wheat-starch wastewater (51%). In contrast, cultivation in orange peel extract yielded a biomass rich in lipids (20%). The use of PPL was also studied in terms of the economy of fungal cultivation. The biotreatment was found to require only 46% of the capital investment necessary for treating PPL by the traditional strategy (application as fertilizer). In comparison, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus oryzae yielded superior results compared to those of R. oryzae when grown in the starchy residues. The high protein content of the fungal biomass encouraged the investigation of its use for bioplastic production. The addition of 20% fungal biomass in a pectin matrix increased the tensile yield of the film and reduced the elongation at break. Moreover, a positive effect on water vapor permeability of the film was also observed.

    These results indicate the ability of the filamentous fungi to convert resources wasted by the food industry into new products with positive impacts on the economy and the environment.

  • Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Reflection/Commentary on a Past Article: “Multi-grounded Theory: An Update"2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, ISSN 1609-4069, E-ISSN 1609-4069, Vol. 2018Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Claesson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Liljesand, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Användbarhet som värdeskapare: En studie om användbarhetens roll vid val av bärbara datorer hos studenter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of usability is to help the user reach their goals in a simple and satisfactory manner. A product’s usability is therefore affected by various aspects. Aspects such as performance, hardware, user interface, and perceived quality, are some of the parameters that should be taken into consideration when students choose a laptop that will be beneficial for their studies. 225 students participated in a survey where they rated and explained how much certain aspects affected their choice of laptop. The results showed that students value laptops with good performance, long battery life, and technical aspects that suit their needs. The most common use of the laptops were to aid them in their studies, and aspects such as performance, weight and size of the laptop determined whether or not the laptop would be useful for this purpose. The study confirmed that brands are associated with quality and that product quality was one of the reasons to why students became loyal towards a brand of computers. Aspects such as hardware, performance, user interface, and quality affects the user’s ability to reach their goals in an effective manner, and therefore needs to be suited after the individuals’ functional and emotional needs to achieve optimal usability.

  • Dzeko, Elvir
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Carlsson, Markus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Autonoma drönare: modifiering av belöningsfunktionen i airsim2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drones are growing popular and so is the research within the field of autonomous drones. There are several research problems around autonomous vehicles overall, but one interesting problem covered by this study is the autonomous manoeuvring of drones. One interesting path for autonomous drones is through deep reinforcement learning, which is a combination of deep neural networks and reinforcement learning. Problems that researchers often encounter within the field stretch from time consuming training, effective manoeuvring to problems with unpredictability and security. Even high costs of testing can be an issue. With the help of simulation programs, we are able to test algorithms without any concerns to cost or other real-world factors that could limit our work. Microsoft’s own simulator AirSim lets users control the vehicle in their simulator through an application programming interface, which enables the possibility to test a variety of algorithms. The research question addressed in this study is how can the pre-existing reward function be improved on avoiding obstacles and move the drone from start to goal. The goal of this study is to find improvements on AirSim’s pre-existing Deep Q-Network algorithm’s reward function and test it in two different simulated environments. By conducting several experiments and storing evaluation metrics produced by the agents, it was possible to observe a result. The observed evaluation metrics included the average reward that the agent received over time, number of collisions and overall performance in the respective environment. We were not successfully able to gather enough data to measure an improvement of the evaluation metrics for the modified reward function. The modified function that was created performed well but did not display any substantially improved performance. To be able to successfully compare if one reward function is better than the other more research needs to be done. With the difficulties of gathering data, the conclusion is that we created a reward function that we can’t tell if it is better or worse than the benchmark reward function.

  • Engström, Frida
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Söderberg, Sofie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Kravhantering med fokus på användarinverkan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In every project within systems development, managing requirements in a proper way has a major impact on a project’s success. A total of 56 percent of sources of errors in information systems is a result of shortcomings in requirements engineering (RE). Although there are many methods for managing requirements, these methods are not used to a large extent, and furthermore research results within requirements engineering points to several reasons why they are not used. A reason is that system developers tend to focus on technical features and constraints, which is seen as a reason for the failure of traditional RE-methods. It is also widely known that the foundation of successful system development lies in understanding the social and organizational aspects. In order to provide a useful system, it is therefore important to involve users in the development process. However, there are statistics that shows that a large proportion of users are not involved within the process of requirements engineering.

    The study aims to explore and describe requirements engineering in practise with particular focus on user impact. The methodology for the study has been qualitative and data collection has been performed with semi structured interviews with respondents from three companies. The respondents consisted of four practitioners who work with requirements engineering in system development projects and the remaining three respondents are users of these systems. The empirical analysis presents the result of the study and is compared to the theory to highlight interesting or important links between how practitioners apply requirements engineering in practice and how users are involved in this process.

    The empirical analysis shows that practitioners more likely tend to be inspired by requirements engineering methods than to embrace them entirely. The analysis also shows that requirements engineering standards are inadequate in practice. Additionally, results of the study indicate that super users have greater potential to influence the requirements than other users and that the communication of requirements between system developers and users can be improved. It is clear that there are a lot of potential when it comes to involve users in order to avoid misinterpretation or missing requirements.

  • Karic, Elmir
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nordqvist, Thomas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Rosenqvist, Tim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Användbarhet för synskadade inom digitala underhållningstjänster2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As streaming of movies, television series and music is gaining popularity around the world, usability is an aspect that is becoming increasingly important in the design of various services. It is not enough to offer only desirable services and features, they must also be presented as easily understood and easy to use. Spotify and Netflix are two auditory and visual digital entertainment services that should be adapted to all people, independent of earlier experiences and conditions. But are they really?

    This study aims at investigating usability of digital entertainment services for the visually impaired. The key methods employed in the study consists of interviews and test driven experiments. A series of interviews were conducted with a selected sample of visually impaired individuals in Sweden. A test-driven experiment was then designed and conducted where a selected sample of visually impaired acted the role of user-based testers. Results suggest that that a number of factors affect the usability when visually impaired persons interact with the selected services user-interfaces. Important factors includes; type of platform the services is used on, degree of visual impairment, service updates, inaccessible design and the users previous experience with said service. The study has also identified that the usability of the investigated digital entertainment services for visually impaired people differs on different devices, where the Smartphone interfaces are more usable than the user interface of P.C. These results lead us to conclude that visually impaired cannot use the entertainment services independently and satisfactorily.

  • Pirahandeh, Mehdi
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    A systematic literature review on cloud of things vulnerability2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day, a new publication on information systems highlights about Cloud of Things (CoT) vulnerabilities; in most of these publications, vulnerability is quoted as the most substantial barrier for CoT realization. However, formulating a justifiable appraisement of the actual vulnerability impact on CoT is difficult because in many of these publications, the term security “vulnerability” is stated incorrectly as a threat or the publication does not discuss CoT-specific vulnerabilities. To achieve a well-founded understanding of CoT vulnerabilities, this literature review identifies the major vulnerabilities and their security controls and to identify any gaps for future research. A systematic literature review (SLR) approach using 58 articles is considered for this review. Based on this review, a taxonomy is created to classify the existing CoT vulnerabilities and security controls. This literature review identifies and discusses similarities and differences among various vulnerability issues and solutions. Most reviews previously performed were limited to the threats to the application interface and virtualization level, whereas this SLR thesis expand to the vulnerabilities in connectivity and things level of CoT. This study emphasize the importance of a clear definition of cloud of things vulnerabilities and to facilitate better understanding and assessment of CoT vulnerabilities to build more secure systems.

  • Svanlind, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Sanborn, Richard
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Allmänhetens uppfattning och tillit till Blockchain-teknik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in Blockchain technology has grown so rapidly that it has, in a short time, become a core business in the IT industry. These developments have come with positive and negative impacts and their overall perception by society has remained uncertain. Limited work has focused on understanding the societal perception of Blockchain, particularly the extent to which society trust such technology. Moreover, it is not only important to understand the level of trust for a technology such as Blockchain that is built on transparency, but even the factors that influence such trust. In order for the technology to be accepted on a larger scale, one needs to know what individuals and consumers think about the technology, otherwise there is a risk that that the potential of the technology may not be fully utilized.

    The purpose of this study is, therefore, to explore the extent to which individuals in Sweden trust Blockchain as a technology. The overall goals and approach can be applied anywhere else in the world. The report identifies factors as to why the Swedish population trusts more or less in Blockchain. The study uses both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. A qualitative study was conducted in the form of personal interviews to find out what individuals know about Blockchain, and what people consider to be important factors that affect their trust in Blockchain. The qualitative survey was conducted to build a foundation for the quantitative study. The quantitative survey was conducted with the help of questionnaires. The questionnaire addressed trust, knowledge of the technology, as well as respondent's general attitude toward new technology. The respondents were restricted to a sample of individuals living in Sweden between age range 18 to 65+.

    Based on the survey sample of about 172 participants, the analysis shows that 10.47% of individuals in the Västra Götaland county are less familiar with Blockchain, 19.19% do not count on the technology at all, 63.95% are neutral, 4.1% trust it fairly and 2.33% fully trust it. From this, the conclusion can be drawn that the trust is relatively low. The result also showed that there were a number of recurring factors that affected individuals' confidence in Blockchain. These factors were data integrity, decentralization and the fact that Blockchain is considered to be related to the black market. Furthermore, on the basis of this survey, it is possible to interpret both a low level of knowledge and a high neutral attitude towards the technology. This could be considered as something positive for the future of technology as few pre-defined opinions exist. More information about Blockchain could thus be an opportunity for increased trust. For further research, it was suggested that more research should be done involving a much larger sample in order to investigate if individuals would be willing to accept the technology even if they do not fully trust the technology.

  • Lundberg Rodin, Margareta
    Mötesplats Profession-Forskning 20162016Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För sjuttonde gången genomfördes Mötesplats Profession - Forskning i Borås den 27-28 oktober 2016. Konferensens tema har varierat genom åren likaså innehållet i inlämnade konferenspaper. Ofta har fokus varit aktuella frågor i bibliotekarieprofessionen som senast då sexton godkända abstracts delades in under följande fem teman: samverkan, verktyg, metod, användare och profession.

  • Andersson, Björn
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Eriksson, Felix
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Designförslag på belöningsfunktioner för självkörande bilar i TORCS som inte krockar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For this study TORCS (The Open Racing Car Simulator) have been used, since it is an interesting game to create self-driving cars in. This is due to the fact there is nineteen different sensors available that describes the environment for the agent. The problem for this study has been to identify what sensor can be used in a reward function and how should this reward function be implemented. The study have been utilizing a quantitative experimental method where the research questions have been: How can a reward function be designed so that an Agent can maneuver in TORCS without crashing and at the same time have a consistent result

    The quantitative experimental method was picked since the writer’s hade to design, implement, conduct experiment and evaluate the result for each reward function. Fifteen experiments have been conducted over twelve reward functions on two different maps: E-Track 5 (E-5) and Aalborg. Each of the twelve reward function conducted an experiment on E-5, where the three once with the best result: Charlie, Foxtrot and Juliette conducted an additional experiment on Aalborg. The test on Aalborg was conducted in order to prove if the reward function can maneuver on more than one map. Juliette was the only reward function that managed to complete a lap on both E-5 and Aalborg without crashing. Based on the conducted experiment the conclusion that Juliette fulfills the research question was made, due to it being capable of completing both maps without crashing and if it succeeded it gets a consistent result. Therefor this study has succeeded in answering the research question.

  • Licina, Aida
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Radtke, Hannah
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Johansson, Charlotte
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Usability in M-commerce: Critical factors to consider when adapting m-commerce2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic commerce is a phenomenon that has developed rapidly during recent years and has come to take larger part in the everyday life. The act of buying and selling products online is referred to as electronic commerce and today, this phenomenon is starting to take more space within the mobile devices which is called mobile commerce. The user no longer has to visit physical stores in order to make a purchase, it can now all be done from a device in the palm of the hand.

    The aim with this research was to describe what the driving factors of m-commerce are from a usability perspective and how important different usability factors are to the customer when performing mobile commerce. This particular thesis was conducted with a quantitative approach in order to gain information about the consumer behavior when shopping through mobile phone as well as finding the most critical usability factors from the users point of view. The result was a self-completion questionnaire with a total of 200 respondents.

    The results from the self-completion questionnaire points out that there are numerous critical factors that can have an impact on the users’ decision whether to perform mobile commerce or not. Furthermore, the results from the questionnaire pictures that most of the consumers still prefer to shop in physical stores followed by shopping online through the computer. The reason why other methods before using the smartphone to make a purchase was chosen, was mainly because of the limited screen size and input mechanisms on the mobile phones. The result also shows that the majority of the participants would cancel their purchase if usability factors, like errors and poor site performance, are not thoroughly considered in the application. This shows the importance of including usability in the developing of applications and mobile websites.

    This essay will provide companies and developers with important information that is needed for creating applications for mobile commerce with high user satisfaction. M-commerce is a rapid growing field of study which is important to research because of the impact it begins to have on business. For further research it would be interesting to continue the study of other factors that plays a big role when developing mobile applications for m-commerce. Security is one key issue in m-commerce and according to our empirical result it is of big importance for the users performing m-commerce and should be investigated deeper.

  • Sjöberg, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Valvring, Frida
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Kompositionen av digitala värdeerbjudanden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists and practitioners agree that digital service innovation is an absolute necessity for organizational survival. Applying a service dominant logic to innovation work, however, is not a minor change. It is a paradigm shift where traditional ideals are replaced with new ones. The new service-dominant ideal also affects the organizational digital innovation process and its results. The result is, among other things, changing the focus of the digital innovation process from product to a digital value proposition consisting of a number of different components and resources. Something that is important for improving opportunities to streamline the service innovation process.

    The problem we address is that there is no knowledge of which components a service-dominant value propositions consists of in an IT context. Uncritically applying knowledge identified in context to another is problematic because attributes in context can differ. The problem is supported by recently published research results that demand more studies about the value proposition structure in different contexts. The purpose of this report is to investigate how the value proposition is put together in a service-dominant IT context. In order to fulfil the purpose, we have followed the case study methodology where four anonymous organizations' value propositions have been studied. Data has been collected by reviewing related literature as well as semi structured interviews with four respondents with different roles from each organization. Before the semi structured interviews, an interview guide has been developed based on a conceptual model based on previous research in the field.

    The result shows that the value propositions in an IT context consists of ten components grouped into three dimensions. Five of these methods are significant for the application of existing frameworks commonly used in the IT context. The study results show that value propositions components in an IT context include the following processes: service portfolio process, business relationship management, incident management, availability management and change management. The empirical study also resulted in the development of a conceptual model of a digital value proposition.

  • Gustafsson, Ida
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Önskan att lyckas och risk att misslyckas: Vårdande av nyblivna mammor med amningssvårigheter som det upplevs av barnmorskor på BB2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårdande av nyblivna mammor med amningssvårigheter är en central del av arbetet på en BB-avdelning. Antalet kvinnor som ammar sina barn i den grad som World Health Organization (WHO) rekommenderar har minskat de senaste åren och som orsak till detta nämns ofta amningssvårigheter. Flertalet nyblivna mammor påbörjar dock amning under den tid de är inskrivna på BB-avdelningen. Tidigare forskning har undersökt kvinnors upplevelser av styrkor och brister i vården vid amningsstarten. Barnmorskornas upplevelser är dock mindre studerade. För att utveckla vården är det angeläget med fler studier inom detta område. Studiens syfte är därför att beskriva fenomenet vårdande av nyblivna mammor med amningssvårigheter som det upplevs av barnmorskor på BB. Detta har gjorts med hjälp av sex livsvärldsintervjuer som analyserats utifrån en fenomenologisk innebördsanalys. Den essentiella innebörden av fenomenet är: en strävan att främja välbefinnande i den unika amningssituationen vilken får sin näring genom önskan att lyckas och risken att misslyckas, och har resulterat i fem innebördselement: en strävan att med sin kunskap möjliggöra unika vård, ett gemensamt och personligt ansvar som både möjliggör och hindrar, en kamp för att räcka till, att arbeta i motvind och ömsesidig glädje ger motivation att vårda. Diskussionen tar fasta på barnmorskornas önskan att lyckas och risk att misslyckas i strävan att ge god vård. Detta diskuteras både i relation till barnmorskorna själva och till de aspekter som kvinnan och kollegorna bidrar med. Slutligen ges förslag på kliniska implikationer och fortsatt forskning.

  • Palmér, Lina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jenny, Ericson
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Mothers of preterm infants' experiences of breastfeeding support in the first 12 months after birth: A qualitative study2018In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground:  Breastfeeding  support  is  important  for  breastfeeding  mothers;  how-ever, it is less clear how mothers of preterm infants (< 37 gestational weeks) experi-ence breastfeeding support during the first year. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe how mothers of preterm infants in Sweden experience breastfeeding support during the first 12 months after birth.Methods:  This  qualitative  study  used  data  from  151  mothers  from  questionnaires  with open- ended questions and telephone interviews. The data were analyzed using an inductive thematic network analysis with a hermeneutical approach.Results: The results exposed two organizing themes and one global theme. In the organizing  theme  “genuine  support  strengthens,”  the  mothers  described  how  they  were  strengthened  by  being  listened  to  and  met  with  respect,  understanding,  and  knowledge.  The  support  was  individually  adapted  and  included  both  practical  and  emotional  support.  In  the  organizing  theme  “inadequate  support  diminishes,”  the  mothers described how health professionals who were controlling and intrusive di-minished them and how the support they needed was not provided or was inappropri-ate.  Thus,  the  global  theme  “being  thrown  into  a  lottery—dependent  on  the  health  professional  who  provided  breastfeeding  support”  emerged,  meaning  that  the  sup-port received was random in terms of knowledge and support style, depending on the individual health professionals who were available.Conclusion: Breastfeeding support to mothers of preterm infants was highly varia-ble, either constructive or destructive depending on who provided support. This find-ing clearly shows major challenges for health care, which should make breastfeeding support more person- centered, equal, and supportive in accordance with individual needs.

  • Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digital inkjet functionalization of water-repellent textile for smart textile application2018In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital inkjet printing is a production technology with high potential in resource efficient processes, which features both flexibility and productivity. In this research, waterborne, fluorocarbon-free ink containing polysiloxane in the form of micro-emulsion is formulated for the application of water-repellent sports- and work wear. The physicochemical properties of the ink such as surface tension, rheological properties and particle size are characterized, and thereafter inkjet printed as solid square pattern (10 × 10 cm) on polyester and polyamide 66 fabrics. The water contact angle (WCA) of the functional surfaces is increased from < 90° to ca. 140° after 10 inkjet printing passes. Moreover, the functional surface shows resistance to wash and abrasion. The WCA of functional surfaces is between 130° and 140° after 10 wash cycles, and is ca. 140° after 20000 revolutions of rubbing. The differences in construction of the textile as well as ink–filament interaction attribute to the different transportation behaviors of the ink on the textile, reflected in the durability of the functional layer on the textile. The functionalized textile preserves its key textile feature such as softness and breathability. Inkjet printing shows large potential in high-end applications such as customized functionalization of textiles in the domain of smart textiles.

  • Ravula, Vamsi Krishna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Study on fungal pellet morphology and its industrial applications2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mycelial pellet formation by filamentous fungi is one of the most researched topics in fungal biotechnology research. Pellets are generally formed as a result of a complex interaction process through the influence of many cultivation factors such as inoculum size, pH, dissolved oxygen level, agitation system, nucleating agents, additives, trace metals, CO2, temperature, reactor types, carbon substrate, rheology, culture modes, fermenter geometry, nitrogen and phosphate levels etc. Each factor has varying effects on the growth morphologies of different fungal species. Fungal growths in the form of pellets have several advantages and pose a potential solution to overcome the problems associated with the filamentous fungal growth in large scale industrial bioreactors. The aim of the present work was to study pellet formation of edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, focusing on the molecular aspects of the fungal pellets with special interest to investigate the role of cell signaling second messenger cyclic 3', 5’-adenosine mono- phosphate (cAMP). It was found that Neurospora intermedia stimulate cAMP in the pellet form than filamentous form. The industrial applications of fungal pellets for generating value added products were also studied and observed fermentation in individual and co fermented first and second-generation ethanol substrate, showed an ethanol yield maximum of 0.25 ± 0.05 g/g dry substrate. The growth of fungal pellets in presence of inhibitors (such as acetic acid, HMF and furfural) resulted in about 11% to 45% increase in ethanol production as compared to filamentous forms, at similar growth conditions in the liquid straw hydrolysate.

  • Hernández, Niina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Does it really fit?: improve, find and evaluate garment fit2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clothes affect everyone; we wear them for all occasions; they silently communicate on our behalf, and they can enhance our level of confidence and comfort. For the garment to be comfortable, the garment fit has to be appropriate. Appropriate for the intended function and in line with the wearer’s preferences. For the garment to end up as an approved garment in the customer’s wardrobe, it has to be improved and evaluated many times over. The final evaluation to pass is when the customer finds the garment, tries it on and asks: Does it really fit? The common denominator for the studies included in this thesis is garment fit; the goal is to investigate some methods to improve, find and evaluate garment fit. To improve garment fit, two studies were done. One study is on improving garment fit with the help of a systematic model, based on anthropometric and garment numerical data; this is explored with the help of an experimental set up. The second study is on improving garment fit for the unique figure by offering made-to-measure garments, which is investigated with a structure of action research. An experimental strategy is used to find garments that fit, where the size and fit correspondence is compared between virtual and real garments. To tie everything together, variables for garment fit evaluation are identified with the help of a structured literature review and then analysed within each study. The result shows that the theoretical garment fit improves by using the systematic model. Both the overall accommodation for the target group increased as well as the fit value. The garment fit is improved for the unique figure; this is achieved through complex body measurements, invasive pattern modifications and garment make-up for fit evaluation. The accuracy for size selection based on virtual garments exceeded the one based on the more traditional key measurements. The variables involved in the garment fit evaluation can be divided into five areas: influencing factors, evaluations focus, resources, evaluators or fitting sessions.