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  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 10:00 E310, Borås
    Bátori, Veronika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fruit wastes to biomaterials: Development of biofilms and 3D objects in a circular economy system2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the current plastic pollution problem, the replacement of conventional plastics with bioplastics can be considered. Although the land use of crop cultivation for bioplastics is still negligible, there is an increasing interest in the utilisation of lignocellulosic waste products for the production of bioplastics. A latest trend in researching sources for bioplastic production focuses on the use of fruit and vegetable wastes because of their versatile polysaccharides. Among different fruit wastes, orange waste and apple pomace have been evaluated as raw materials in this thesis.

    The development of biofilms and 3D objects from the above-mentioned raw materials via the solution casting and compression moulding methods was investigated. Biocomposites are generally made from a bioplastic matrix and reinforcement, or a plastic reinforced with natural fibres. In the present study, pectin was used as a matrix, and cellulosic fibres wereused as reinforcement. Orange waste films had an opaque appearance with a yellowish colour and were very flexible, while the 3D objects had brown colour. The films had mechanical properties comparable with those of commodity plastics, such as 32 to 36 MPa tensile strength. The films were biodegradable under anaerobic conditions, and 3D objects showed good biodegradability in soil. Grafting of orange waste with maleic anhydride was performed in order to improve its properties, e.g. the hydrophilicity of the polysaccharides-based materials. Grafting reduced the density by 40 % and increased the hydrophobicity compared with unmodified orange waste. Further improvements included upgrading the film casting method and incorporating maleic anhydride in the recipe. The lowest amount of necessary maleic anhydride was determined (0.4 %), and the resulting films had a smoother and more uniform surface. The original methods were also applied to apple pomace in order to produce films and 3D objects. Films from apple pomace had an elongation of 55 %, a twofold increase compared to that of orange waste films containing maleic anhydride (28 %). Orange waste and apple pomace were also mixed for 3D object fabrication, achieving the highest strength of 5.8 MPa (ratio of 75 to 25, respectively) a threefold increase compared to that achieved with only orange waste alone (1.8 MPa).

    The results are promising‚ but further improvements, e.g. in respect to hydrophilicity and upscaling‚ are needed for orange waste and apple pomace to develop into raw materials for next-generation bioplastics.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 13:00 C203, Borås
    Wallin, Birgitta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Selling and lending e-books: Changes in the Swedish literary field2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the actors distributing e-books in the Swedish book market. The focus was on public libraries and booksellers, which included aggregators, subscription services, online booksellers and physical bookshops. Field theory (Bourdieu, 1996) was used in order to investigate the positions, dispositions and capitals (social, cultural, economic and symbolic) of the actors in the literary field. Innovation theory (Winston, 1998) was used to identify the suppression of radical potential and supervening social necessity of the e-book on the Swedish book market. Different strategies utilised by the actors in the changing digital market were explored using the concepts of planned and emergent strategies (Mintzberg, 2003). A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used for the data collection. Surveys were used in order to reach a large portion of the respondents and semi-structured interviews were added to reach additional respondents and get further in-depth responses.

    Key findings revealed that the e-book distributors in the Swedish book market maintain their positions by adapting to the changing digital market. There are two main strategies found in regard to e-book use: the first in which the use of e-books is encouraged in order to maintain relevance for customers and library users; the second in which physical bookshops and some public libraries are passive and do not encourage the use of e-books when it comes to their customers and library users. The risk of disintermediation was considered to be low and was really only the concern of one aggregator who was the mediator of e-books between publishers and public libraries and booksellers.

    The tensions found mainly concerned the availability of e-book titles and conditions of selling, licensing, lending and use of e-book titles as dictated by the most powerful actors in the field. There were ideological tensions which emerged with e-book lending which were not present with print book lending (at least not from the beginning of the 20th century). Booksellers considered that e-book lending was unfair competition as the principle of one book and one loan was no longer valid given that e-books can be lent out to several library users simultaneously. Public libraries were worried about the better usability and technological advantages offered by commercial e-book providers as they offered more attractive options to their users. The findings illustrate that there were social necessities pushing and radical potential suppressing e-books on the Swedish book market, which were sometimes created by the same actors.

    The study contributes to research that explores how actors in small language markets, like the Swedish book market, can deal with the changes brought on by the digital production and distribution of books.